Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 35 , Issue 1
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (263K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Koji Takenaka
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 1-17
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Ohkubo Ohkubo
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 19-28
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to examine the location of elementary school playgrounds in the local district at the early time of the school physical education in the Meiji era. The main sources are 383 plane figures of school of building, sub-jointed document of the applications of school establishment, which were presented to the Iwate Prefectural Office during 1833-84. The analysis of sources in this paper is carried out by the same way as a reliable research method of Tsuda (1983), originated the case of Nara prefecture. The significance of this paper should be as follows: 1) To give geographical and comparativ view to a historical study on the playgrounds in Iwate and in Nara, based on the identical bases of sources and period. 2) To make evidence, by elucidating the condition of the playgrounds in that time, to support the fact that an official report mentioned: "In 1886 Iwate prefecture has about 50 elementary schools that carry into practice the physical education program." 3) To give original view to the basic historical study how the playgrounds of the local schools in Japan has developed and enlarged. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Only 55 of 383 schools (14.4%) named the area of the playground. (In the case of Nara,only 11 of 415 schools (2.4%) named so.) Among them the largest area was 345 tsubo (1,138.5 m^2),the smallest area was 8 tsubo (26.4 m^2), and the mean area was 82.2 tsubo (271.3 m^2).2) Two hundred and twenty-three schools estimated the playground area (total school area minus schoolhouse area) were classified into three groups. (The mean total school area was l14.5 tsubo (378.5 m^2), the mean schoolhouse area was 31.1 tsubo (102.6 m^2) and the mean playground area was 83.6 tsubo (275.8 m^2)). A) under 50 tsubo (165 m^2):109 (48.8%), B) 50-100 tsubo (165-330 m^2):43 (19.2%), C) over 100 tsubo (330 m^2):109 (48.8%). A percent over 100 tsubo total schoolhouse area were Iwate 46.8%, and Nara 20%. 3) Most of the playgrounds were shaped like a square. 4) Most of the playgrounds were placed in the south or east of the schools area. That is to say, about 68% of the elementary schools in those days had hardly any playground area. But, the official report in 1886 is evidently supported by the condition of the playgrounds,because of the number of the over 100 tsubo playgrounds were about 70. As compared with Iwate and Nara, Iwate had somehow preferable playgrounds conditions more than Nara. As one of that reason, following social and educational background is supposed: Iwate had been enthusiastic to the education from the beginning of Meiji era, in order to overcome the poverty and the humiliation of the defeat of the Boshin civil war (1968).
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  • Kazushi Takami, Junji Kishi, Shiro Nakagomi
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 29-39
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper is to examine the features of identity formation in college athletes from the viewpoints of ego development and identification with a sport. In study 1, athletes' identity was defined operationally as "the subjective sense and consciousness as an athlete" and "the psychological attitude of self definition through the sports experience." A scale for assessing athletes' identity (athletes' identity scale) was established. In study 2,356 male college athletes were rated with both the athletes' identity scale and Loevinger's (1970) sentence completion test for assessing ego development. Considering the distribution of scale scores, 40 Ss representing high and low scores on both scales were interviewed and the interviews were rated by 3 judges using Marcia's (1964) procedure for determining identity status. The 40 Ss were also interviewed using an interview manual of involvement in athletic sports. It was clarified that high athletes' identity levels were associated with the foreclosure. The formation of ego identity through althletes' identity seems to lead to the attainment of identity without crises. It is considered that for college athletes, exploring ego identity formation is made passive by a high athlete's identity. High levels of ego development with low levels of athletes' identity is associated with the statuses in which crises are a common feature (achievement and moratorium). It is considered that levels of athletes' identity imply the opportunity for identity formation. It is suggested that high levels of ego development are necessary for identity achievement. High levels of ego development are also associated with subjective involvement in athletics. According to this result, it can be considered that subjective involvement in athletics has a desirable effect on ego identity formation.
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  • Norihiro Shimizu
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 41-52
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In the present paper, we tried to apply managerial behavior theory to management of physical education and sports. The purpose of the investigation was to examine some dimensions determining managerial behavior of physical education manager and the relationship of situation characteristics surrounding managers to them. Further, this study also aimed at clarifying the effect of managerial behavior to the effectiveness. It was assumed that managerial behavior was divided into three categories as follows: (1) routine managemant is a facing behavior to maintain the present condition toward followers; (2) management for the innovations directed toward organizational development; (3) management for creating supportive organization by contacting with outside members of working group. Data were collected from 147 managers of physical education in lower secondary schools and high schools by questionnaires. Physical education managers were presented 43 items representing managerial behavior of managers in daily job accomplishment, and asked to rate the degree of doing them. The results were obtained by applications of factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. Main findings were summarized as follows: 1) Six factors (initiative of innovation with cooperation, supervision of job accomplishment, initiating structure, expressing agenda, consideration, influence on members rank higher than managers) were extracted as sub-dimension of managerial behavior. 2) The condition trait generally influencing three factors related to developmental managerial behavior was the autonomy of working groups composed of physical education teachers. 3) Managers in non-routine condition made efforts to build the network with higher rank,and did not supervise severely the attitude of followers to job. 4) Managers evaluated highly their aptitude as leaders in working group for physical education by themselves displayed "initiating structure" and "consideration." However, with the exception "influence on members rank higher than managers," all factors contributed toward the aptitude as leaders in the organization of management for physical education.
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  • Norimasa Yamada, Ken Miyashita
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 53-61
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper was to obtain the basic data necessary for studying the technique to reduce the takeoff time in hurdling. For our experimental subjects, we used two of Japan's top class hurdlers. We analyzed the center of gravity (CG) height from the touchdown point of the last stride to the point of toe-off on the takeoff, and the vertical reaction forces of the support phase of the last stride and the takeoff phase. The results were summarized as follows; 1) The vertical velocity of the CG of the last stride was 0.35 m/s or 45% less in the toe-off compared to the touchdown. Thus, reducing the vertical velocity of the toe-off of the last stride and the CG height of the airborne phase of the last stride would lead to a reduction in the vertical momentum of the body in the touchdown, and was therefore effecitve in reducing the takeoff time. 2) The vertical momentum at touchdown was smaller than that of the last stride, but the initial peak of the vertical reaction force was 1.9 times greater. This force was effecitve in reducing the vertical momentum of the body at touchdown in a short time, and was therefore considered to be an important factor for reducing the takeoff time.
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  • Osamu Aoyagi, Koushi Onozawa, Takaaya Horiyasu, Yoshihiko Iura, Yukito ...
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 63-73
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The following results were obtained from the correspondence analysis made after obtaining information through a questionnaire answered by 754 superior judo players who have participated in nation level tournaments during their youth and adulthood. 1) Those who held a judo record of pefforming in an event at the national level during their youth or adulthood are mainly those who have played judo continuously since junior high school. 2) A more common pattern of the transition in sports performance is that players generally stay below the prefectural level during their junior high school period and reach the national level during their high school period after which many of them retain that ascertained level.Also, regarding the world level those who have reached that level in their adulthood are the ones who normally gained it during their youth period. 3) In regard to records of sports performance, there is a higher correlation between the adjoining age range, and the degree of that correlation declines as time elases. To summarize such a correlation, the high school period should be separated into two age groups. 4) Regarding the correlation between sports performance records and experience in sports or judo, a significant correlation can be seen only up to high school age, and the sports experience prior to the high school period can be considered separate from the sports performance record achieved during youth and adulthood.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 75-77
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 79-87
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 89-90
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 91-
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (449K)
  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: June 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (449K)
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