Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 35 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (249K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages App2-
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Sumiko Uchiyama, Haruki Uchiyama
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 99-108
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    One should strictly choose proper technical terms in a study. Judging from the present conditions, however, the meaning of the terms, "dance-appreciation" and "dance-contemplation"in a dance study is very ambiguous as there is no common understanding among scholars. With an assumption, that the term "dance-enjoyment" includes both "dance-appreciation" and "dance-contemplation", we aimed at to clarify the structure of "dance-enjoyment" through examining the two conceptions, "dance-appreciation" and "dance-contemplation" focusing on the theory of Martin Buber. After examining the problem above, we may conclude as follows: 1) "Dance-appreciation" is the subjective process that a spectator defines the dance as "objectivity" through "concept". The goal of this subjective process is to evaluate the individual interpretation. Through this process, a spectator will get a connotation and a knowlegde of a dance. 2) "Dance-contemplation" is the direct relation between a spectator and a dance, which is defined as "other", total, unique and unified existance and is accomplished through the soulful interchange with a coleographer. As a result of this relation, a spectator is perfected as a human and a dance is perfected as an art. 3) "Dance-enjoyment" consists of the double structure of "dance-appreciation" and "dance-contemplation". "Dance-appreciation" operates as the "necessary" conditions and "dance-contemplation" as the "essential" conditions. They are caused by the double human nature of the "subjectivity" or the "personality". It is considered that not only the structure of "dance-enjoyment" lifts up the contents of "dance-apprediation" and "dance-contemplation", but it contributes to the object of the evaluation in a dance. To conclude, establishing the way of the evaluation in a dance, especially in character building at school, will be regarded as a very important factor.
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  • Norihito Yamamoto
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 109-119
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present study assessed participation motives for intercollegiate athletic clubs of university students and examined its differences between regulars and reserves. The data were obtained from 251 male and female athletes who were belonging to intercollegiate athletic clubs in an university. The questionnaire was prepared by interviewing 50 male and female athletes. Main findings were as follows: 1) As a result of a factor analysis, seven categories of participation motives were obtained.Among these motives,"achievement","health and physical fitness","affiliation","free and equality",and "social usefulness" were identical with the results of previous studies regarding motives for sports participation. However, this study was characterized by such unique motives as "avoidance" and "adherence"; especially,"avoidance" motive was most significant. 2) Discriminant function analysis revealed that the motives of "free and equality","health and physical fitness", and "adherence" were discriminating regulars and reserves. "Free and equality" motive was most significant among these three motives. This means that, comparing to the reserves, the regulars are belonging to athletic clubs motivated by free and equal atmosphere of teams to which they belong. 3) Finally, comparative analysis was undertaken to examine whether there were differences in their participation motives or not in terms of sexual difference, academic speciality (major), the types of sporting events in which they compete, and their academic year. Through every comparison the influence of "free and equality" motive was strong in the regulars.However, there existed the motives that exerted unique influences in each comparison. For example, "adherence" motive was more significant for the female reserves than the male regulars. The regulars of physical education major were more influenced by the motives of "achievement" and "social usefulness" than others. "Health and physical fitness" motive exerted the most distinctive influence between the regulars and the reserves of in their third year.
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  • Kiyoji Tanaka, Yoshiyuki Matsuura, Fumio Nakadomo, Eitaro Nakamura
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 121-131
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Principal component analysis was applied, for the assessment of vital age (more frequently termed the biological age), to the data for 34 physiologic and anthropometric variables. Subjects were 106 Japanese women, aged 30 to 72 years, who were recruited in a series of tests for cardiorespiratory, physical fitness, anthropometric, body composition, and blood lipid profiles.The subjects were categorized into two groups-those (n=15) who possessed either four or more of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors ((1) obesity, (2) hypercholesterolemia, (3) hypertension, (4) low maximal aerobic power, (5) an abnormal electrocardiogram reflecting ischemic patterns, and (6) real sedentary life) including 7 CHD patients and those (n=83) who were considered apparently healthy without CHD risk factors. Analyses of the data revealed that, out of the 34 variables examined, 11 variables were suitable for the assessment of vital age,and that the individuals with many CHD risk factors were approximately 7 years older when compared to their chronological ages (54.6 ± 9.9 vs. 61.4 ± 7.2 yr). Healthy individuals were,however, found to have similar vital ages (49.1 ± 11.0 yr). to their chronological ages (49.0 ± 8.9 yr). The developed equation for the estimation of vital age (VA) was VA=8.90VS+49.0+Z,VS=-1.035 +0.016X_1 +0.011X_2 -0.064X_3 -0.012X_4 +0.004X_5 +0.004X_6 +0.004X_7 +0.034X_8 -0.037X_9 -0.005X_&lt10&gt -0.367X_&lt11&gt, Z=0.33Age -16.17; where X_1=abdominal girth (cm), X_2=SBP (mmHg), X_3=VO_&lt2LT&gt (ml/Kg/min), X_4=HR_&ltLT&gt (b/min), X_5=TC (mg/dl), X_6=LDLC (mg/dl), X_7=TG (mg/dl), X_8=hematocrit (%), X_9=side step, X_&lt10&gt=one-leg balance with eyes closed(s), and X_&lt11&gt=FEV_&lt1.0^s&gt(l). Since independent variables of this equation included physical fitness items and those measured during submaximal exercise stress test, we defined the score obtained from the equation as "vital age." Importance and usefulness of the vital age were discussed.
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  • Takehiko Fujise, Tetsuro Tamaki, Tamotsu Terao, Kuniatsu Nagami, Shoic ...
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 133-142
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of NetVO_2 (excess increase to resting value) on performance during short-term strenous exercise in each sports event, and also the relationship between NetVO_2 and VO_2max by using incremental exercise. Thirty-two trained males (100 m runners: n=6, 400 m runners: n=8, ice hockey players: n=10, long distance sports men: n=8) and six untrained males, aged 23.6 ± 3.1 yrs, performed cycle ergometer exercise,pedaling against 0.1 kp/kg wt with maximal effort for 45s. NetVO_2 in trained groups were significantly higher than that of untrained group. The differences of VO^^._2max between trained groups were significant, except between both groups of 400 m runner and ice hockey player,while there were no significant differences among Net VO_2. Total work and peak power were highest in the groups of 100 m and 400 m runner, whose ratio of Net VO_2 to O_2 requirement were both 14.6%, and this percentage was lowest in the five groups. The correlations between Net VO_2 and total work were significant only in the groups of 100 m (r=0.858: p&lt0.05) and 400 m runner (r=0.857: p&lt0.01). The correlations of O_2debt and total work, and VO^^._2max and NetVO_2 were significant in all subjects (r=0.610, p&lt0.01; r=0.600, p&lt0.01), however, both relations were not significant in each group. These results suggest that in the athletes with high anaerobic capacity Net VO_2 markedly contribute to perform a short-strenous exercise. In general, maximum oxygen uptake might be associated with an increase of Net VO_2 during short-strenous exercise, but there was no relation between Net VO_2 and VO^^._2max in the trained subjects.
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  • Shinji Sakurai, Yasuo Ikegami, Kyonosuke Yabe, Atsushi Okamoto, Shinta ...
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 143-156
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Many joint actions are involved in the throwing motion of a fastball pitch; therefore, two dimensional (2-D) procedures are insufficient for analyzing the throwing motion. In this study,three dimensional (3-D) high-speed cinematography was used to record fastball pitches of varsity baseball pitchers. Two small reference sticks were fixed on the hands and forearms of the throwing arm of the subjects to detect their movements.The direct linear transformation (DLT) method was used for 3-D space reconstruction from 2-D images filmed by two from 2-D images filmed by two phase-locked cameras (200 frames/s).The throwing arm has seven degrees of freedom of joint motion except in the fingers; three for the shoulder, one for the elbow, one for the radioulnar, and two for the wrist. Following seven joint angle changes corresponding to all these degrees of freedom were obtained throughout the pitching motion. 1) horizontal abduction/horizontal adduction angle at the shoulder joint, 2) abduction/adduction angle at the shoulder joint, 3) internal rotation/external rotation angle at the shoulder joint, 4) flexion/extension angle at the elbow joint, 5) pronation/supination angle at the radio-ulnar joint (forearm), 6) radial flexion/ulnar flexion angle at the wrist joint, 7) palmar flexion/dorsi flexion angle at the wrist joint. The results showed that horizontal adduction and internal rotation of the shoulder,extension of the elbow, pronation of the forearm, and palmar flexion of the wrist were the important joint actions for fastball pitching in baseball. Preliminary to these motions were motions in the opposite direction; e.g., horizontal abduction and external rotation of the shoulder,flexion of the elbow, supination of the forearm, and dorsi flexion of the wrist were detected.These motions in the opposite direction would be useful to extend the range of the motion in each joint angle. The results also appear to be connected to intrinsic muscle propertios, that greater power can be exerted during shortening of the muscle when it is stretched just before the shortening action.
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  • Koh Yoshimura, Shiro Nakagomi
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 157-171
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    When a person experiences repeatedly a noncontingency between his/her behavior and outcome,learned helplessness (LH) is formed. Past studies have predicted that LH is not formed in a straight formed manner, but rather the behavioral inclination drops down after it has once gone up the first stage. The purpose of study I was to positively ascertain the process of the formation of LH by way of making subjects (Ss) perform over a long period a pursuit and shooting task that had been programmed into a computer so as not to allow Ss to be successful.In addition, the cognitive style of these Ss that had been exposed to noncontingency was examined in terms of the following two factors. One was "the strength of a perceived contingency"-(a); a probability of his/her success. The other was "the certainty of judgement"-(b); the certainty of the judgement for (a). Based of this; the cognitive style in the case of being exposed to the noncontingency was examined. As a result, it was proved that the process of the formation of LH made an inverted U-shaped curve, and it became clear that the strength of the perceived contingency was low and its judgement was very certain for the occurring of LH. Moreover, it was though that if the cognitive style of Ss were changed, it might be possible to delay the occurring of LH. With that in mind, in study II, an experimental situation was set up so as to cause in Ss an exploratory behavior with regard to the task. The effects of being given much information to perform the task were than examined. The results supported the hypothesis. A decline in the behavioral inclination was not observed even in the latter term after being exposed to much noncontingency. As a result then, one clue to restrain and prevent LH was given.
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  • Kazuhito Katsura, Shiro Nakagomi
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 173-185
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was: 1) to clarify the determinant factors of the adjustment to school athletic clubs 2) to develop a means of measuring adjustment to school athletic clubs and 3) to examine the relative significance of the factors from a developmental point of view. The subjects were 671 junior high school students, 462 high school students and 515 university students participating in school athletic clubs and they composed three age grops. Concerning 64 items related to adjustment feeling, all the subjects were asked to rate their feeling on 7-point scales. principal factor solution method with normal varimax rotation; ANOVA and multiple regression analysis were applied to analyze the data. The main findings were as follows: 1) Five factors which were named "self-competence in the club (FAC1)", "cognition of leader and leader's management (FAC2)", "restriction/restraint feeling (FAC3)", "commitment to the sport and the club (FAC4)" and "cognition of the team mates (FAC5)" respectively, were clarified as the determinant factors of the adjustment to school athletic clubs. 2) A 42-item self-report scale, yeilding indices of five aspects of adjustment as well as a summarized adjustment feeling score, was developed. Both reliability and validity of the scale were assured, and the scale was considered to be an adequate means of measuring adjustment to school athletic clubs. 3) In each of three groups of subjects, the 5 factors were different in the strength of relative significance, and the order of its strength were different among the subject groups, as follows: In the junior high school student group, FAC4&gtFAC2&gtFAC1&gtFAC3&gtFAC5, in the high school student group, FAC3&gtFAC1&gtFAC5&gtFAC4&gtFAC2, and in the university student group,FAC5&gtFAC1≧FAC3&gtFAC4&gtFAC2.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 187-188
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 189-193
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 195-198
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 199-
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 208-
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (126K)
  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 208-
    Published: September 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (126K)
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