Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 35 , Issue 3
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages Cover7-
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages Cover8-
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (101K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages App3-
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Tomohiko Murase, Shinichi Demura
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 207-217
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study was designed to determine the relationships between motor ability based on maximum ability exertion tests and pass or fail tests in preschool children. A total of 192 healthy Japanese children aged 4.0 to 6.5 years were selected as subjects for this study. Twelve maximum ability exertion tests measuring motor ability elements and 14 pass or fail performance tests representing the fundamental movement domains were selected, and these tests were administered to the subjects. The factor analytic technique was applied to a correlation matrix, consisting of the 12 test variables to measure motor ability, to clarify the factorial structure of motor ability. To examine the relationships between motor ability factors and pass or fail tests, the theory of Quantification I and the biserial correlation method were used. The main results can be summarized as follows: 1) The motor ability in preschool children aged 4.0 to 6.5 years was considered to be composed of 5 motor ability factors: power, flexibility, muscular strength, balance, and muscular endurance. 2) The pass or fail tests representing the movements of "standing" and "jumping and throwing" were closely related to muscular endurance and power factors, respectively. Most of the tests concerning the movements of "walking and running" were not correlated significantly with any of the above 5 motor ability factors. 3) The pass or fail test battery showed a strong relationship with the motor ability measured by the maximum ability exertion test battery. Therefore it was suggested that the pass or fail test battery can estimate motor ability in preschool children.
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  • Shinichi Demura
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 219-230
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Osamu Aoyagi, Ryouzou Nakamura, Kouji Komata, Morio Suganami, Susumu T ...
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 231-239
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the preference and non-preference for certain judo players and their fundamental physical fitness. Twenty excellent judoists in open weight category who were national team members from 1985 to 1988 were selected as the subjects. And than, Bradley and Terry model, which was constructed as one dimensional scaling of game performance, was applied to the game tournamenets of all Japan levels from 1985 to 1988. From the investigation in the validity of the indices obtained, there was a significant preference and non-preference relationship for certain judo players. A new index which could express the preference and non-preference relationship operationally was devised as follows : S_<ij>=(X_<ij> + 0.5)/(X_<ji> + 0.5)^* P_j/P_i where S stands for preference and non-preference index, X for a number of wins and P for the parameter of the Bradley and Terry model. On the basis of the results, a correlation ration between the preference and non-preference index and fundamental physical fitness was calculated. As a result, body weight, skin fold fat (abdomen), chest girth, hip girth, arm strength, bench press, squat, high clean, arm pullover,side step, step test and endurance run were significantly correlated with the preference and non-preference index.
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  • Munehiko Harada, Hideo Kikuchi
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 241-251
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of the present study is to apply and test lifestyle concept in the field of sport management research. The AIO (Activities, Interests, and Opinions) approach is used to operationalize the lifestyle concept. Questionnaires containing 41 AIO statements are administered to a total of 585 members of a privately owned sport club in Osaka,Japan. Three hundred ninety-four usable questionnaires were returned, resulting in a response rate of 67.4%. Factor analysis is used to identify the overall structure of club member's lifestyle. Factor scores are then compared for differences in generation and gender status. The findings of the study include:(1) There exist ten factors representing dimensions of sport participant's lifestyle. They are named as 'Self-Confidence','Weak-Will','Nihilistic','Sports','Affirmative','Brand Conscious'and 'Health Conscious' factors, respectively. (2) When generation is considered, mean scores differ significantly for 6 of the 10 factor dimensions. (3) When both generation and gender are considered, mean factor scores differ significantly for 4 of the 10 factor dimensions. These findings confirm that lifestyle is an observable construct and differs according to generation and gender. It is suggested that the future research has to consider the idea of lifestyle segmentation and its application for sport club management.
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  • Kazunori Asaba, Shigeru Katsuta, Kaoru Takamatsu, Ken Miyashita
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 253-260
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of muscle fiber composition and capillary supply of m. vastus lateralis to sprint performance within the same quality group of sprinters. The subjects were 21 well-trained male sprinters (21-25 yr). For sprint performance the following 6 indexes were taken. (1) 70FV: The mean velocity sprinting for the former half (0-30m) of 70 m (2)70LV: The mean velocity sprinting for the latter half (30-70 m) of 70 m (3) 70V: The mean velocity sprinting for 70 m (4) 1 min.V: The mean velocity sprinting for 1 min. (5)70LV/70V (6) 1 min.V/70LV. For muscle fiber composition the following 5 indexes were taken. (1)%FT (2) %areaFT (3) FTarea: cross-sectional area per FT fiber (4) STarea: cross-sectional area per ST fiber (5) FTarea/STarea. And for muscle capillary supply the following 6 indexes were taken. (1) CD: capillary density (2) CFratio: capillaries per fiber (3) CC(FT): number of capillaries in contact with FT fiber (4) CC(ST): number of capillaries in contact with ST fiber (5)CC(FT)/area: CC(FT) in 1000 μm^2 of FT fibers (6) CC(ST): CC(ST) in 1000 μm^2 of ST fibers. The results were summarized as follows; 1) The subjects had a large proportion of FT fibers in m. vastus lateralis (%FT=72.8%,%areaFT=73.8%). But neither %FT nor %areaFT was related with any indexes of sprint performances significantly. 2) 1 min.V/70LV, index of speed endurance ability except the influence of maximum speed,was related with CFratio and CC(FT) significantly (r=0.453, 0.479 in order, r<0.05). 3) In distriminant analysis, two groups (higher velocity group and lower velocity group)devided by 1 min:V were classified with high probability of 85.0% correctly: Discriminant function coefficients (D.F.C.) were higher in order of CC(FT), %areaFT,FTarea/STarea, and CC(FT)/area. And it was shown that CC(FT) contributed to the discrimination significantly (D.F.C=1.191, P<0.01). From these results, the high %FT and %areaFT in the m. vastus lateralis are necessary in order to succeed in the same quality group of sprinters. However, this is not a necessarily important factor which decides sprint performance. And it is suggested that there is a significant relationship between the speed endurance ability and the number of capillaries in the leg muscles .
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  • Fumiko Mimasa, Tamaki Matsumoto, Toshio Moritani
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 261-269
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Tranquilizer effect of aerobic exercise was studied in seven college students. The seven subjects acted as their own controls in an experimental design where each subject was tested twice before and after exercise and twice before and after control (quiet sitting). Exercise consisted of 20-min cycling on an ergometer with the load adjusted to elicit a heart rate rise of 60% between resting and maximal value. Testing consisted of measurements of resting electroencephalogram (EEG) and spinal reflex excitability (H-reflex). EEG signal was digitized at a sampling frequency of 64 Hz and analyzed by means of computer-aided decomposition algorithm and frequency power spectral analyses, respectively. For the assessment of spinal reflex excitability, electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa was applied to elicit H-reflexes (H waves) and directly propagated waves (M waves). The H/M ratio was then calculated and used as the criterion variable. Results indicated that there was no significaint difference in the H/M ratio on the control day (-0.27%, p>0.05), but showed a dignificant decrease after exercise (-15.9%, p<0.01). EEG spectral analysis demonstrated /significant increase (p<0.05) in relatively low frequency components, e.g. delta (+23.8%) and alpha (+18.1%)waves. These results confirm earlier resting EMG results and further suggest that tranquilizer effect of exercise may reside not only in the peripheral muscle motoneuron excitability, but also in the higher central nervous system.
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  • Takeshi Matsui, Junichiro Aoki, Toshihiro Ishiko
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 271-280
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Six trained male swimmers participated in the present study as subjects. They swam in water at 20℃ and 27℃ for each 30 minute, and rode on a bicycle ergometer for 30-min submaximal cycling and exhaustive cycling. At the termination of the swimming at 20℃, rectal temperature (T_<re>) was significantly lower when compared to the swimming at 27℃ (20℃: 36.29 ± 0.77℃, 27℃: 37.15 ± 0.39℃). During the submaximal cycling after 30-min swimming at 20℃,heart rate (f_H) was consistently lower (p<0.05) than the swimming at 27℃ until 20 min of cycling. The mean difference of f_H was 12 beats/min. During the exhaustive cycling which followed 3O-min swimming at 20℃, the peak heart rate (peak f_H) and oxygen uptake (peak V_<o2>) were significantly lower compared to 30-min swimming at 27℃: 169 ± 7 beats/min, 3155 ± 117ml/min (46.3 ml/kg・min^<-1>) and 150 ± 8 beats/min, 2928 ± 148 ml/min (42:9 ml/kg・min^<-1>),respectively. The peak fH and exhaustion time were significantly correlated to the rectal temperature at the beginning of the exhaustive cycling. As for the concentration of blood lactate and free fatty acids, no significant differences between 20℃ and 27℃ trials were observed during both submaximal and exhaustive cyclings. From these observations, it is concluded that the decrease in rectal temperature and the increase in oxygen uptake observed during 30-min swimming at 20℃ as compared to the swimming at 27℃ resulted in the decrease of fH until 20min of post-swimming submaximal cycling and in the decrease of peak f_H, peak V^^._<o2> and performance time during post-swimming exhaustive cycling. These findings suggest that swimming in cold water, which is frequently observed on an actual triathlon race, would have some detrimental effects on the performance of post-swimming cycling.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 281-294
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 295-
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (294K)
  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages Cover9-
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (42K)
  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages Cover10-
    Published: December 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (42K)
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