Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 36 , Issue 3
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages Cover9-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (185K)
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages Cover10-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (185K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages App4-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (220K)
  • Takeo Takahashi, Yoshinori Okazawa, Takashi Nakai, Makoto Yoshimoto
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 193-208
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purposes of this study were to make clear the structure of teacher behaviors in physical education class and to examine the effect of those behaviors on the student evaluation to physical education class. The subjects were the 66 physical education classes instructed by 27 teachers in elementary schools. The teacher behaviors in those classes were observed by the systematic observation instrumentation, that was modified with ALT-PE-TB and ORRPETB observation to physical education class. Main findings were as follows. Major teacher behaviors in physical education class were "management", "instruction","monitoring", and "interaction". Though Siedentop) reported 3 behaviors excluding interaction as major behaviors, we could recognize that interaction behavior took the same rating as other behaviors. 2) There was no big difference among behaviors between skilled teachers and general teachers. 3) Some specific behaviors of teacher had significant relationship with student evaluation to physical education class. Especially, the amount of time spent for manegement and instruction (lecture) had a significant negative relationship with student evaluntion. On the other hand, interaction (question, acceptance, positive and corrective feedback for skill learning) had a significant positive relationship with it. 4) Supposed that monitoring would have effect on the learning activities, we could not find a clear relationship because of the limitation with the instrumentation. 5) These results suggest that the indirect teaching style has more effect than the direct one at least in order to increase the student attitude to physical education class.
    Download PDF (1455K)
  • Tetsuya Sagawa, Seiji Ohosawa
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 209-218
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Our study has demonstrated disappearance of traditional children's play and games and modification in modern sports in Ubon Ratchathani, northeast Thailand from a viewpoint of trend-regional surface. Ubon Ratchathani has been rapidly urbanized and a obvious sociocultural difference of regional characteristics is found between rural and urban areas. We chose three districts of Ban (a farm village), Amphoe (the county capital) and Amphoemuang (the prefectural capital), and conducted a survey on the play and games of the upper grades of elementary school in each distinguishable district. The results are as follows; 1) We observed seventy nine kinds of plays including traditional play and games and sports in these three districts. 2) Traditional play and games were much observed in Ban, but they were gradually disappearing in the urban area, which indicated an ordinal structure of Ban, Amphoe and Amphoemuang as the trend-regional surface. 3) Sports were much observed in Amphoemuang, and they were gradually appearing in the urban area, which indicated an ordinal structure of Amphoemuang, Amphoe and Ban.
    Download PDF (900K)
  • Yasuyuki Yokoyama
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 219-233
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To examine whether or not the frequency polygons of physical fitness data (side step test,vertical jump, back strength, grip strength, step test, trunk extension, standing trunk flexion,total scores and evaluation of physical fitness test) and motor ability data (50 m run, running broad jump, handball throw, pull-ups, endurance run, total scores and evaluation of motor ability test) in 3,948 boys and 3,900 girls from 12 to 17 years old in 1986 were the normal curves,the tests of normality with reference to k-statistics were carried out on the frequency distributions of them. The items of physical fitness test and motor ability test which had normal distribution or significant skewness or kurtosis coefficients at ages over two thirds of 12-17 year-old groups were as follows: 1) In skewness coefficient, vertical jump data in both sexes and total scores of physical fitness test of the boys had normal disturibution. In kurtosis coefficient, vertical jump data,grip strength data, total scores of physical fitness test and motor ability test, handball throw data in both sexes; step test data and pull-ups data of the girls had normal distribution. 2) The significant positive skewness appeared in the data of back strength, step test, total scores of physical fitness test, 50 m run, handball throw, pull-ups and endurance run in both sexes; grip strength of the girls and total scores of motor ability test of the boys. The significant negative skewness appeared in the data of trunk extension in both sexes and standing trunk flexion of the boys. 3) The leptokurtosis appeared in the data of side step, back strength, endurance run in both sexes; standing trunk flexion, 50 m run, pull-ups of the boys; trunk extension of the girls.The platykurtosis appeared in the data of evaluation of physical fitness test in both sexes and evaluation of motor ability test of the girls. 4) The frequency distribution rate of 12 year-old girl's endurance run which showed the maximum skewness and kurtosis coefficient appeared at the stage of 1 (7.3%), 2 (22.4%), 3(50.3%), 4 (30.9%) and 5 (0.0%) in the five-stage relative evaluation. The standard tables of the five-stage relative evaluation (1:7%, 2:24%, 3:38%, 4:24%, 5:7%) by sex and age were prepared in each item of physical fitness test and motor ability test.
    Download PDF (1198K)
  • Yukio Fujita, Yukio Kataoka, Tatsumori Fujita
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 235-243
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of voluntary exercise upon arterial blood pressure and heart rate, by means of direct measurement in unanesthetized,unrestrained Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR). 15 male SHR and Wistar Control Rats (WCR) aged 17-25 weeks old were used. After the animals were anesthetized, polyethylene catheter filled with heparinized saline was inserted into the femoral artery. The dwelling catheter was tunneled to the back of the neck, connected to pressure transducer via a rotating swievel. After recovering from anesthesia, each rat was housed individually in a rotating wheel capable of voluntary exercise. Three days (at least) after catheter implantation, continuous (24 hours/day) recording of arterial pressure, heart rate, and wheel rotation were initiated. The results were as follows: 1) Sufficient voluntary running exercise of SHR and WCR with dwelling catheter were observed during the continuous measurements. 2) Mean blood pressure at rest in SHR was 139 mmHg. The blood pressure significantly increased during voluntary exercise to 158 mmHg. In WCR, mean blood pressure at rest was 93.3mmHg, also significantly increased to 100 mmHg during voluntary exercise. 3) Heart rate in SHR at rest was 308 (beats/min). During exercise, the heart rate significantly increased from the resting level to 376 (beats/min). In WCR, heart rate also significantly increased from 335 (beats/min: at rest) to 423 (beats/min) during exercise. 4) The increase rate (v.s. resting level) of blood pressure during voluntary exercise of SHR (14%) was significantly larger than that of WCR (7.2%). 5) The increase rate (v.s. resting level) of heart rate during voluntary exercise of SHR (22%)was significantly smaller than that of WCR (26%). These results suggest that the intensity of voluntary running exercise of rat in rotating wheel is mild, and the increase response of blood pressure to the exercise is greater in SHR.
    Download PDF (753K)
  • Tamaki Matsumoto, Kazuo Ito, Minoru Ito, Toshio Moritani
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 245-253
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test for estimating physical working capacity at fatigue threshold. The subjects in this study were 20 female college students including highly trained endurance athletes (TR:n=6) and untrained sedentary individuals (UTR:n=6). The fatigue threshold was measured by recording electromyogram (EMG) fatigue curves from the quadriceps muscle in a series of discontinuous, work bouts (200, 250, 300, 350 W) on an electrically-braked bicycle ergometer. The power output at the fatigue threshold (EMG_&ltFT&gt) was defined as the greatest power loading without electromyographic evidence of muscle fatigue, i.e.the highest constant power output of the subject on the bicycle ergometer which resulted no increase in integrated EMG (iEMG) as a function of time (iEMG slope). Anaerobic threshold (AT)was estimated from gas exchange parameters during an incremental work test on the same bicycle ergometer. The results indicated that 1) AT VO^^._2 (1.39 ± 0.44 l・min^&lt-1&gt) and EMG_&ltFT&gt VO_2 (1.33 ± 0.57 l・min^&lt-1&gt) measured for a entire group of subjects were correlated at r=0.823 with no significant difference (p&gt0.05) between these mean values. 2) Statistically significant differences were found between TR and UTR for VO^^._2max, AT VO^^._2 and EMG_&ltFT&gt VO^^._2 (p&lt0.01). These results suggested the validity and feasibility of EMG_&ltFT&gt determination using iEMG slope coefficient so obtained during fatiguing exercise on the bicycle ergometer. Since this method could be achieved by several discontinuous maximum 1 minute work bouts, it appears to be reasonably simple while minimizing the psychological factors affecting the results.
    Download PDF (789K)
  • Shingo Oda, Toshio Moritani, Sadayoshi Taguchi, Tamaki Matsumoto, Humi ...
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 255-262
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate tee-batting skills in relation to ground reaction forces. Eithteen batters tried seven swings on the force platform recording three-dimensional kinetic data. A video camera (60 fps) was used to measure ball velocity and swing velocity. The following results were obtnined. 1) A statistically significant correlation was observed between the swing velocity and the swing time. 2 Statistically significant correlations were observed between the swing velocity and the anteroposterior forces during backward swing phase, the mean power calculated from the anteroposterior force during forward swing phase. 3) Statistically significant correlations were obtained betwben the swing velocity, the ball velocity and the mediolateral distance of the CG of the body from the starting position during backward swing phase. 4) The swing velocity and the ball velocity significantly correlated with the mediolateral distance of the CG of the body between the starting phase and the impact phase. 5) Coefficient of variations (cv) of the vertical forces during backward swing phase and the mean power calculated from the vertical force significantly correlated with cv of the swing velocity. CV of the vertical power of the CG of the body significantly correlated with cv of the ball velocity. These findings suggest that the batter should move the body toward the opposite side of the ball and the anterior direction just before the starting phase of the forward swing to obtain the high swing velocity. The result also suggests that the batter should control the vertical movement during backward and forward swing to obtain the high reproducibility of batting.
    Download PDF (681K)
  • Takashi Matsuda, Tetsufumi Mura, Naohiko Yano, Shoji Kakigi
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 263-270
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychophysiological processing during putting.Eight athletes were recruited as subjects from a university golf club and given 100 trials of putting a ball to a hole, which was placed 200 cm away from the ball position. EEG was recorded during the performance from Cz site with 5.0 sec time constant. Trials were divided into two categories according to the alternative judgements that were made immediately after each putt;one was a feeling of success of putting and the other was a feeling of failure. The averaged readiness potential for the feeling-of-failure trials was larger than that for the feeling-of-success trails. However, the estimated readiness potential component for the feeling-of-failure trials,which was obtained by the principal component analysis, was not larger than that for the feeling-of-success traials. Moreover, for the feeling-of-failure trials, two estimated readiness potentials and motor potentials were obtained. These results suggest that two psychological processes contribute the subjective feeling of failure in putting while only one psychological process is involved in the feeling of success in putting.
    Download PDF (714K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 271-274
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (202K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 275-278
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (207K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 279-298
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1054K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages 299-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (150K)
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages Cover11-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (241K)
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 36 Issue 3 Pages Cover12-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (241K)
feedback
Top