Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 37 , Issue 1
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Koichi Kiku, Masaki Kozonoi
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 1-14
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristic types of professional ideology which began to arise among the various parties concerned with baseball in the Taisho period, by using a historico-sociological perspective. The objects of this study are three teams, i.e., the Japan Athletic Association (in Japanese, Nippon Undo Kyokai), the Tenkatsu baseball team (Tenkatsu Yakyu Dan) and the Daimai baseball team (Daimai Yakyu Dan) because it would be conceivable that these three teams can be organized in a manner based on the characteristic type of professional ideology. The perspectives and frameworks for analysis are made up concretely by ideologically interrelated types between the baseball system and the economic system from the viewpoint of that system. That is, as two model types regarding the formation of ideology, it was thought that there was one type of autonomous formation (Type A) which takes precedence over the profit within the baseball system, and the other (Type B) of a heteronomous formation which favours the profit within the economic system in disregard of that of the baseball system. As a result of analyzing the above three teams, the arising of a professional ideology can be classified as fdllows: 1) The Japan Athletic Association was a party which looked forward to internal reform by natural growth, and promoted professionalism in order to realize a particular ideal, that is to develop sound baseball within their system without allowing the involvement of an economic order, i.e., enterprise. (Type A) 2) The Tenkatsu baseball team was an "enterprise-led" type of party, which looked forward to an external reform of the system with the desire to promote professionalism by allowing the involvement of the economic order and being utilized by such an order. (Type B) 3) The Daimai baseball team possessed the same ideology as type B, but it was an "enterprise-leading" type of the baseball system, a new concervative party which tried to maintain an amateur qualification. (Type C) These three types of professional ideology at the dawn of the baseball period are not only paid attention to from the viewpoint of the effect on the establishment of the later professional baseball system, but also need to be examined further in order to resolve the fundamental problems regarding the professionalization of the present world of sport considered in its entirety.
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  • Tamotsu Hoshikawa, Shintaro Toyoshima, Satoru Mori, Naomi Mori, Yasuo ...
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 15-27
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    An information as to the activity pattern and the amount or intensity of physical activity of pupils in physical education class is not only theoritical interest, but such information is essential for making up a teaching program of education. Untill now, however, no method for recording of physibal activity has been established, data have been obtained by retrospective questionaries, observation (time-study method) and measuring of heart rate over extensive periods. These methods are too cumbersome or expensive. The purpose of this study was to develop the new device for recording physical activity of pupils in physical education class as an actogram. A pedometer was used to detect the physical activity. A micro-switch was set to convert the pedometer signal to electric one, because it is advantageous for processing of data by computer. The pedometer count was memorized in IC memory of which capacity was 32-kbyte. The memorized pedometer count was fed into personal computer through an interface and after processing, it was displayed as the actogram representing the physical activity pattern of pupils in the class. The new device developed in this study could serve as a practical assessment tool for the physical activity pattern of pupils, because it is so small (110 mm × 70 mm × 30 mm) and light (170 g), no disturbance of physical activity, convenient to handle as well, and furtheremore less expensive.
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  • Takaaki Niwa, Hitoshi Oka, Tomoko Kuroda, Yuzuru Tsutagawa, Shoichiro ...
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 29-43
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to examine Authority-Power Structure and Group-Attractiveness from the viewpoint of strength in match; to clarify what makes athletic clubs strong and to get materials to reinforce the Theory of Productivity-Attractiveness with. The subjects were 3,010 members of 100 Rugby-Fotaball clubs from universities and colleges all over Japan.They were examined and checked by means of questionaire and the following conclusions were reached. 1. As far as Authority-Power Structure is concerned, the stronger the Rugby-Fotball clubs are, the more clubs are of the outsider control pattern and of the outsider including oligarchy pattern. On the contrary, the weaker the clubs are, the more clubs are of the outsider excluding oligarchy pattern and of the membership pattern. 2. The stronger the Rugby-Football clubs are, the more members participated in athletic clubs in their junior and senior highschool days: their participation was for a longer term, their clubs were strong and many of them were captains. Especially, in their senior highschool days,many from the Rugby-Football clubs must have been excellent players. 3. The Stronger the Rugby-Football clubs are, the more days are alloted to practicing and the more individual members show higher participation ratio. But, by bettering the system and method of practice, the days and the participation ratio could be a little less and lower. 4. Compared with about twenty years ago, the Rugby-Football club members today tend to show self-centered, individualistic way of thinking. 5. In order to strengthen the Rugby-Football clubs, the amount of practice matters, that is,in strained human relationship with excellent managers and coaches. 6. In the Rugby-Football clubs, too, strength of match and group attractiveness are closely related with each other. This affirms the Theory of Productivity-attractiveness. 7. The factors regulating the strength of the clubs were examined according to their Authority-Power Structure. Outsider Controlled Pattern: the attractiveness of the club's prestige is stronger than other factors. When people other than managers and coaches take leader-ship, the clubs become weaker. Outsider Including Oligarchy Pattern: the attractivenesss of the club's prestige is also stronger than other factors. Generally speaking, the captain's strong leadership with his performance function makes the club strong. Outsider Excluding Oligarchy Pattern: these data can not be clarified but if we presume to say, when the club is managed in the strained human relationship with the captain and the senior members at its top, the strengh of the club increases.
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  • Takaaki Niwa, Kuniko Nagasawa
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 45-53
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of emotions, cognition, personality and attitude on cognitive judgment by means of players' judgment on the play that ends the rally (the finishing play) in situations of volleyball games. The subjects number sixty-nine in all of four volleyball teams of women's colleges and universities. Each subject watches the video-tape, one set of the game of her own team, and is asked to write which play has ended the rally. Then, the written answers are checked in relationships with cognition of the opponent's strength, with her likes and dislikes of the opposing team, and with the results of two personally tests and one attitude test. The following conclusions are reached. 1. All the teams have strong tendencies for adjustment of emotions and cognition by attributing the opponent's points and rights rather to her own failure than to the opponent's success. 2. As to the personality factors, those who show the higher traits of objectivity make the more objective judgments, those who are the less self-centered take the more failures as their own, those who have the greater sense of inferiority show the greater tendency of ego-centric cognition, and those who get the less points in cultural characteristics test of British sports are the more willing to take failures as their own. Accordingly, the personality factors and the attitude factors toward sports influence cognition of the causes of points and rights. 3. The cognition of opponent's ability compared with the ability of her own team influences cognition of the causes of points and rights.
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  • Hiroaki Inaji, Tadashi Shenda
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 55-68
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to analyze the main factors of dropping-out in jurior highschool sport team activitis by factor analysis. The subjects consisted of two groups; the group of dropouts (352) and the group of students (483) who continued their activities. In addition, a scale to predict and diagnose dropping out was made. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The factors of dropping-out were extracted by factor analysis, in 9 categories, classified by such factors as dropping out, sex, grade etc. The following 17 factors of dropping out were identified; "decline club activity", "friendlessness", "restriction", "other value judgment","unfairness", "illness and injurly", "getting behind in studying", "unimprovement of skills","not being a regular", "insufficient planning", "discrease of leadership", "corporal punishment", "hard exercise", "less of objectives", "private utilization", "dissatisfaction for a coach",and "family reasons". 2. The main factors of dropping-out were "decline club activity", "unimprovement of skills", and "not being a regular" and they were investigated from the view point of the factor structure, the rate of contribution and the point of categories in each factor. "Decline of club activity" is a unique factor identified in this study. For those students who continued their activity, 6 factors were extracted and they were interpreted and given each name. All these were included in the factors for the group of dropouts. And "droping activity" was the original factor of dropouts on this study. 3. The estimated scale for dropping-outs (ESD) was made from the result of factor analysis for dropout students. The ESD was composed of 22 items in 9 factors with a 5-point scale. 4. The main factors to diagnose dropping-out were "decline of club activity", "not being a regular" from the view points of the structure and the category of the ESD. These factors explained dropping-out most directly; the diagnosis rate by these 2 factors was 66.0 percent. The remaining problem to be investigated is how to apply and analyze the construct validity of the ESD.
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  • Hiroshi Kinoshita, Komei Ikuta, Kenji Kuzuhara, Masaru Aida, Hans Fors ...
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 69-86
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The prehensile ability with fingers has long been recognized as one of the most significant evolutionary development to human and some of the non-human primates. At birth neonates demonstate a reflex grasping to tactile stimulation of the plan, but it disappears before few months of age. From this time, the infants start to voluntarily grasp an object, and by the age of 10 to 12 months, individual fingers are involved in the grasping actions. This study is concetned with development of the capacity to generate coordinated isometric force actions which are used for a successful lifting of a small object with precision grip. A total of 93 children aged from 19 months to 13 years and 15 adults served as subjects for the study. The experimental set-up consisted of an instrumented lifting object (wt.=200 grams), a photoelectric position detector,and an IBM personal computer data acquisition and analysis system. Grip force and load force (the vertical lift force) acting on the object, and the vertical displacement of the object were recorded. The subjects were instructed to make a sequence of reaching, gripping and lifting actions for the object in an ordinary manner five times after some practice trials. Both temporal and force parameters describing critical events of the time-history curves of the grip and load forces and position were selected for subsequent evaluation. It was found that younger children aged below 5 years compared to adults were significantly slow in sequencing the task, and their grip forces were higher. A higher trial to trial variability was also noted in force parameters for these young children than adults. A general trend in development of controlling the timing and force application during grip-lift actions showed that there was a rapid progress of the capacity between 1 and 4 years of age, and a moderate progress between 5 and 8 years. The trial to trial variability data indicated that there was some refinement of the capacity between 9 and 13 years.These results demonstrated that to have a well developed prehensile capacity as seen in adults, it required a relatively long period of time during childhood. Poor capacity in young children was believed to be related to an immature state of the function of corticospinal descending pathway,of inhibitory input to the motor neuron pool activating the fingers, and of the central nervous system which allowed a feedforward stretegy of motor actions.
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  • Hideki Yamauchi, Norikatsu Kasuga
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 87-95
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The effects of jump and isometric training on contractile properties (in situ) were studied in the fast-twitch gastrocnemius (GC) and slow-twitch soleus (SOL) muscles of male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the relationship to fiber type composition were determined. Individual fibers in both muscles were classified as fast-twitch glycolytic (FG), fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG) or slow-twitch oxidative (SO) fibers according to Peter et al. The jump training (JT) consisted of 48 cm vertical jumps at 50 times/day, and the isometric training (IT) consisted of holding on to a vertical grid for 30 min/day. After 6 weeks of training, both JT and IT significantly reduced the isometric twitch contraction time of the SOL, but not that of the GC. Muscle fatigability was tested by the intermittent stimulation (IS) at 40 Hz fof 330 ms each second. No significant differences were observed in the decline of tension developed during IS in all muscles of each group. Fiber type compositions of both muscles were not changed with training. The results of this study suggest that exercise training improves excitation-contraction coupling, rather than the myosin isoenzyme pattern and oxidative enzyme activity which are used as criteria for fiber type classification, and that this induces alterations in mechanical properties.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 97-98
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 99-105
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 106-
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 107-112
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages 113-
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (38K)
  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 37 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: June 01, 1992
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (38K)
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