Zweck der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, die Auffassung Platons zu den Leibesubungen klarzumachen. Dabei beschranken wir auf Platons "Gesetze", in denen er die Bedeutung der Leibesubungen deutlich zeigt. Unsere Arbeit hat folgende Resultate ergeben: 1) Dass in Platons "Gesetzen" der Mensch durch Bewegungen seinen Leib ubt, bedeutet,dass seine Seele, die Muhe liebt, Schrecken und Schmerz uberwindet. 2) Wenn um die menschlichen Guter wie die Gesundheit, die leibliche Leistungsfahigkeit und die leibliche Schoheit zu erlangen der Mensch durch die sportlichen Bewegungen seinen Leib ubt (d.i. wenn die Seele des Menschen Schrecken und Schmerz uberwindet), kann sein Leib diese Guter erlangen. 3) Wahrend Platon im Gegensatz zur bestimmten Meinung bejaht, dass der Mut durch die spartanischen und kretischen kriegerischen Leibesubungen erlangt werden kann, kritisiert er,dass jener Mut, der nicht imstande ist, Begierde und Lust uberzuwinden, nichts anderes als der einfache Mut ist. 4) Der Chorreigen, der aus Lied und Tanz besteht, spielt in Platons Paideia eine sehr wichtige Rolle. Ziel des Chorreigens ist nach seiner Auffassung die Bildung des Mutes, der nicht nur Schrecken und Schmerz, sondern auch Begierde und Lust uberwinden kann. Deshalb ist es selbstverstandlich, dass Platon nicht dem spartanischen und kretischen Mut zustimmen kann. 5) Wenn der Mensch, der diesen Chorreigen in Platons Paideia lernt, uberdies seinen Leib ubt, die Seite des Mutes, die sich auf Schrecken und Schmerz bezieht, verstarkt werden kann. 6) Zuweilen gebraucht Platon Leibesubungen im weiteren Sinne, dass man die gottlichen Guter ubt, ohne seinen Leib zu bewegen. 7) Die Leibesubungen Plntons bedeuten nicht immer die nackten Leibesubungen.
In the recent theory of sport socialization, studies from the viewpoint trying to regard socializee (=socializing individual) as active have increased. However the situation has been in disorder, because methodological pluralism and untheoretical studies have prevailed. A major cause of the situation is thought that the meaning of "active" is ambiguous. So the purpose of this study is to find a theoretical framework to put the active theory of sport socialization in order, expecting the concept "subjecthood" to offer a key to this problem. Sociological theories adopted in this study are Schutz's, Luhmann's, and Mead's. The concept "subjecthood" contains two main meanings of "subjectivity" and "independence" which is synonymous with "autonomy". The meaning as subjectivity is found in Schutz's theory. It is the autonomous function of "Relevance" (or "System of Relevance") which is the cognitive base of action. On the other hand, the meaning as independence is found in Luhmann's theory, and it bases on the function of Relevance. And subjecthood found in Mead's theory is the meaning of autonomy as the function of "I". This also bases on the function of Relevance, and contains the creative or the reformative character of socializee in a problematic (=conflicting) situation. All of them have characters of the mechanism of action accomplishment, and have changeable characters in quality. Therefore viewpoints of the study on the active theory of sport socialization are pointed out as follows: 1) On socializee's actions on subjecthood which contain the cognitive situation on subjectivity in sport contexts. 2) On the change in quality of sociaizee's subjecthood in sport contexts. In either case, it is important to pay attention to the problematic situation of socializee. The study on 1) is a key to the one on 2). Actions on subjecthood are such ones as role-negotiation,sport-role-adaptation, sport-role-making, sport-self-actualization, sport-role-distance, sport-transfer, and sport-dropout, which are based on independence (=autonomy).
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of factors such as sports consciousness, sports conditions and physical fitness to sports activity, and to examine the influence of sports consciousness and sports conditions on the improvement of physical fitness in adolescent male students. The Diagnostic Inventory for Sport Counseling (DISC) and physical fitness tests designed by the Ministry of Education in Japan were administered to 687 healthy male students aged 15 to 20 years. Six sports consciousness scales and 15 sports condition scales were conducted according to the procedure of DISC. Sports activity was defined as the frequency of sports participation per week. Students doing sports activity less than twice a month were termed as a negative or passive sports participation group (SG1) and those doing it several times or more a week were named as a positive sports participation group (SG2). Statistical techniques of discriminant analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to examine the contribution of variable groups to sports activity or physical fitness. The main results can be summarized as follows: 1) The SG2 have the higher sports consciousness and the better sports conditions, and the members are superior in physical fitness to those of SG1. 2) Sports conditions influence students' sports activity greater than sports consciousness and physical fitness level. In addition the present sports conditions is the most important factor influencing their sports activity. 3) Sports conditions in SG2 and sports consciousness in SG1 have a high influence on the improvement of physical fitness. Factors such as delight and anxious feeling to sports activity in sports consciousness, and sports skill, adaptability to personal relations and membership of sports club in junior high school in sports conditions contribute highly to the improvement of physical fitness.
The properties of isometric force developments during leg extensions performed unilaterally and bilaterally were investigated in the untrained and the trained group. The bilateral leg extension force (BL) was significantly lower than the summed unilateral leg extension force (UL), and BL/UL ratio was 88.4% in the untrained group. On the other hand, BL was significantly greater than UL and BL/UL ratio was 104.3% in the trained group. The left leg extension force, BL and BL/UL ratio in the trained group were significantly greater than those in the untrained group. There was a significant difference in time to 50% MVC between the unilateral and the bilateral extension in the trained group. The correlation between the force and the rate of force development in the untrained group was not significant, but in the trained group it was significant in every leg extension. The EMG power spectrum shifted to the high frequency band in the bilateral leg extension in every trained subject , and the peak power frequency which has the maximum power in the power spectrum was significantly greater in the bilateral extension than that in the unilateral extension. As the above results show, it was suggested that the properties of force development in the unilateral and the bilateralleg extension were changed by training.
The purpose of this study was to investigate cross-sectionally the development of running speed, step frequency, step length, running form, and maximal anaerobic power (MAnP) in high school boys. Subjects were 134 high school boys ranging from fifteen to seventeen years of age. They participated in power tests including the 50 m dash, maximal bicycle pedalling, vertical jump and long jump. They were videotaped during the 50 m dash to analyze their running form.Variables analyzed were: 1) 50 m running time, running speed, step frequency and step length, 2)step time, support time and non-support time, 3) path of the whole body center of gravity (CG),4)maximal anaerobic power, vertical jump, and long jump. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The running time for 50 m decreased from 7.44 s to 7;14 s with age. Running speed increased from 7.70 m/s to 8.00 m/s with age. Step frequency increased, while step length and step length/body height ratio showed no significant change. The increase in running speed resulted, therefore, from the increase in step frequency rather than the step length. 2. MAnP increased from 766.0 W to 823.6 W with age, but no noticeable change occurred in the MAnP/body weight. 3. At each age, significant correlations were found between step frequency, step length,and step length/body height except step length/body height of fifteen year old boys. Furthermore, running speed and variables for physical fitness such as MAnP showed significant correlations. Running speed and MAnP/body weight showed a significant correlation for each age group. 4. The relationship between running speed and the CG motion indicated that it was important to shorten support time, increase step frequency and reduce the bouncing motion of the CG in order to improve running speed. The relationship between running speed and the motion of the lower limbs suggested that motion of the toe relative to the hip during support phase, forward motion of the free leg and backward swing motion of the toe prior to foot contact at high speed help to improve running speed. 5. Based on the averages and the standard deviations of variables examined for each age group, running performance was classified into five categories. Averages of step frequency, step length, step length/body height, MAnP/body weight, vertical jump and long jump for the categories were listed in Table 6. This will be useful to evaluate the running performance of students and teach sprint running in physical education classes.
The National Sports Festival, which was started in 1946, has been held annually as a national festival of sports for propagating sports broadly among the nation, uplifting the sports spirit, and improving the health and fitness of all people. Recognizing the values of such event,the central government has been subsidizing the host prefecture to develop its sports facilities and to organize various inhabitant's sports meetings. However, there are some negative tendency in which the festival itself becomes to large and very expensive. The festival rotates annually among prefectures, and finished the first-round in 1987. The host prefectures for the second-round then need to consider the new role of National Sports Festival. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changing role of National Sports Festival by comparing three consecutive sport festivals. This study consists of three different surveys. The first survey was conducted in Okinawa prefecture in Nov. 1987 to analyze the resident's feeling about the last festival of the first-rouund. The second and the third survey was conducted in Kyoto prefecture in Nov. 1988 and Hokkaido in Nov. 1989, respectively. The major findings indicated that National Sports Festival in Okinawa was characterized as a victory oriented festival in which the residents wanted their prefecture to win a championship. On the other hand, both Kyoto and Hokkaido festival emphasized "life-long sport" concept and cut down the operating cost. Such organizational attempt was well accepted by the residents.
The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiovascular responses during qigong (Shao Lin Nui Jin Yi Zhi Chan) which is one of the methods in Chinese qigong. One male qigong instructor participated as a subject. This study consisted of four kinds of experiments. In the experiment 1, heart rate changes during qigong were measured using a telemetry system in the three manners of different grades; primary grade static qigong, high grade static qigong and spontaneous dynamic qigong. In the experiment 2, heart rate, ventilation and oxygen uptake during primary grade static qigong and basic standing posture in qigong (style 1) were measured.In the experiment 3, heart rate, ventilation and oxygen uptake during qigong were compared with the essential four different styles which composed of the primary grade static qigong; 1) finger movement with style 1 (style 2), 2) arm movement with style 1 (style 3), 3) hands movement to both side with style 1 (style 4), and 4) hands movement to aslant direction with style 1 (style 5). In the experiment 4, the relationship between heart rate and oxygen uptake was investigated during qigong and walking-running on a motor driven treadmill. The following results were obtained in the present study. Exp I: Heart rates during primary grade static qigong were 121 bpm in average and 137 bpm at the maximum level. In the high grade static qigong heart rates were 94 bpm in average and 101 bpm at maximum. During spontaneous dynamic qigong heart rates fluctated in the range of 80 to 160 bpm. Exp 2: Heart rate, ventilation and oxygen uptake increased markedly after 35 min of starting static qigong. Exp 3: It was observed that style 2 and 4 contributed to the increase in heart rate and oxygen uptake compared to the style 3 and 5. Exp 4: Heart rate related to the certain oxygen uptake tended to be higher during qigong than walking and running. The results of the present study suggested that the qigong subjected in the study has some influences to the autonomic nervous system even if the movement of qigong was not dynamic as walking and running.