Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 37 , Issue 4
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages Cover13-
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages Cover14-
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (49K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages App4-
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Shinichi Demura
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 339-350
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purposes of this study were to determine the developmental relationships among throw distances of 6 kind balls of various weight, size and solidity, throw form of tennis ball (TB), and accuracy of TB throw, and also to determine the contribution of physical fitness elements and throw form to throw distance. Total of 720 preschool-children from 2 to 6 years old were selected as the subjects, and 11 physique and physical fitness tests were administered to them. The main results can be summarized as follows: 1) The development with age and sex differences were found in all ball throw distances,throw form, and accuracy of ball throw. Little differences between throw distances of light-balls below TB (58 g) were found, but throw distance of a heavy-ball (190 g) as compared with that of light-balls was shorter. 2) Throw distance of TB developed remarkably from about 4 years and the sex difference increased gradually from about 3 years of age. Also the developmental trend of throw form was almost the same as that of throw distance.Boys' throw form with age became closer to that of adults's, but a lot of girls with immature-throw form existed even in the age over 5 years. 3) The contribution of each physical fitness element to TB throw distance differed in boys and girls. In the immature-throw group the contribution of physical fitness elements to throw distance did not show the sex difference, but there was a difference of a degree of contribution between the immature-throw and the mature-throw groups. 4) Physique and power were related significantly to TB throw distance. The latter's contribution as compared with the former's was higher, and its trend was higher in boys than in girls. The contribution of the whole physical fitness and throw form to throw distance was higher in boys than in girls, and in boys the contribution of throw form as compared with physical fitness was higher. 5) Power in the immature-throw group and power and coordination in the mature-throw group were related significantly to throw distance and the contribution of power in the mature group as compared with the immature group was higher. Further, the contribution of the whole physical fitness was higher in the mature group than in the immature group, and the contribution of throw form in the mature group was almost the same as that of he whole physical fitness.
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  • Fumio Yamazaki, Osung Gwon, Ryoko Sone, Yoshiharu Nabekura, Haruo Ikeg ...
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 351-364
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between skin blood flow and sweating during exercise, and also to determine the relationship between those thermoregulatory responses and changes in cardiac time intervals during exercise. Six healthy males performed bicycle exercise at 40% V^^.O_2 max for 40-min at an ambient temperature of 28℃ (50% RH).Physiological parameters including esophageal temperature (Tes), forearm sweating rate (m_<sw>),forearm skin blood flow (LDF) and cardiac time intervals were measured. 1) Tes threshold for initiation of cutaneous vasodilation was higher than that of sweating in each subject. 2) m_<sw> increased with Tes, while the increase of LDF leveled off at 38.1℃ as a breaking Point (bp). 3) When Tes was between 37.6-38.1℃ , total electromechanical systole (QS_2) shortened continuously, but diastolic time (DT) remained constant. When Tes was higher than 38.1℃, the rate of shortening of DT was larger than that of QS_2. The pattern of change of left ventricular ejection time (LVET) was similar to that of QS_2. 4) The trough was formed in the ratio of QS_2 to DT (QS_2/DT) at the bp. When Tes was higher than the bp, the rates of increase were slightly less in the ratio of pre-ejection period to LVET (PEP/LVET) and the ratio of electrical systole to QS_2 (QT/QS_2). From these findings, the following conclusions were obtained: Tes threshold of skin blood flow is higher than that of sweating. A bp is formed for skin blood flow but not sweating during exercise in a warm environment. It is suggested that there is a interrelationship between the control of skin blood flow and the change of cardiac function because the specific changes of cardiac interval time are at the bp of LDF.
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  • Yasuharu Oishi, Takashi Yamakawa, Eishichi Miyamoto
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 365-374
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    We investigated the changes in fiber type composition and myosin heavy chain isoform in rat soleus muscles during 7-week hindlimb suspension. In the soleus muscles, a significant reduction of the muscle weight was observed after 3-week suspension, and the muscle fiber atrophy was found in both slow-twitch oxidative (SO) and fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG) fibers. This indicates that the decrease in the muscle weight was caused by the atrophy of both SO and FOG fibers. As for the fiber type composition, the percentage of FOG fibers increased in the soleus muscles after 3-week suspension, and concomitantly an increase in the fast type of myosin heavy chain isoform was also observed. These results suggest that the increase in the percentage of FOG fibers in the soleus muscles during hindlimb suspension was caused by the conversion from SO to FOG fibers, it is also suggested that the increase in FOG fibers reflected that of fast type of myosin heavy chain isoform. The speeding of the soleus muscles following hindlimb suspension was considered from both tissue level by histochemical analysis and molecular level by SDS-PAGE and immunobiochemical analysis.
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  • Koji Takenaka
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 375-383
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Michio Yasukawa, Kazuo Oishi, Mizuo Kimura, Takashi Maeshima
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 385-391
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study investigated the temporal organization during a mental rehearsal of 500 m speed skate sprint and a simple counting task without mental rehearsal. The effect of the difference between internal and external imagery (crassified by Mahoney and Avener, 1977) to time estimation in the mental rehenrsal was also investigated. Subjects were 8 elite speed skate athletes, ranging in age from 18 to 23 years, who had been fully trained by a image training program which included the same mental rehearsal. They were all highly motivated before each experiment. The mental rehearsal was the same to that in the previous study (Oishi et al. 1991).The mental rehearsal was started by a gun signal recorded by a tape recorder, after a rest period (5 min), relaxation (4 min), and a control of emotion (2.5 min). Subjects were instructed to start a watch at the gun signal and to stop the watch at their finish. Duration of the mental rehearsal was estimated after the each rehearsal. Another time estimation was done during the counting task, which was instructed to continue for the target time defineded as each best record of 500 m speed skate sprint without mental rehearsal. The estimate time during mental rehearsal was very close to the actual time. On the other hand, the other estimate time during counting task was deviated remarkably from the target time. In addition there were many different patterns of the imagery change from internal to external and vice versa. Though the internal imagery was dominant in our subjects, there was no obvious relation between the rate of internal imagery to external one and the accuracy of the time estimation during mental rehearsal. It was suggested that the mental movement was conducted with the similar velocity to that during the actual movement, and the central motor program was involved with the mental rehearsal.
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  • Aiko Okuda, Shiro Nakagomi
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 393-404
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Investigations were carried out in regard to the relationship between an athlete's identity orientation and career decision making behavior. An athlete's identity orientation was defined operationally as a psychological orientation of self definition through the sports experience. That is ego orientation which is oriented to the internal environment or social orientation which is oriented to the external environment. In study 1, an athlete's identity orientation scale, occupational identity status scale and occupational decision making process scale were established. The occupational decision making process scale is used to examine the type of occupational decision making process during one's college years. Also, Melgosa's occupational identity status scale, based on the work of Marcia,was translated into Japanese and utilized for this study. This scale examines the degrees of achievement, moratorium, forclosure and diffusion which are four types of identity status. In study 2,561 male college athletes were rated using these scales. Considering the Z scores of each athlete's identity orientation subscales (ego and social scales), subjects rated to 4 groups (high in both subscales: ES, high in ego scale: Es, high in social scale: eS, low in both subscales es) were selected. Then the occupational identity status and occupational decision process were compared among the 4 groups. The ego scale dominant groups (ES and Es) were high in achievement score, and many subjects in these groups were rated as settlement type with active exploration in career decision making. The subjects in none of marked (es) or not dominant in ego scale groups showed passive and ambiguous career decision making. According to these results, it can be considered that athelete's identity orientation reflects the process of career desicion making. Subjects in ego subscale dominant groups are actively involved in it.
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  • Hitoshi Watanabe, Koji Tsuji, Fujiko Yoneyama
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 405-411
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In archery, highly reproducible release is required during shooting to get a good score.Shooting in archery consists of eight different techniques. The last phase of these techniques is follow-through, which all eight have in common. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the muscle activity at follow-through and performance. In ten healthy archery club members, we recorded the muscle activity of six regions from both sides of M.deltoideus (pars acromialis), M. trapezius (pars ascendens), M. trapezius (pars descendens) by means of electromyogram. Integrated electromyograms of 1 second each at the aiming phase and the follow-through phase were calculated in order to evaluate this technique. The results obtained in this study were: 1) The skilled archers sustained high level (above 80%) muscle activity in the follow-through phase. 2) A significant correlation (r=0.791 r<0.05) was observed between the muscle activity on the draw side and the best score in a single round.3) The performance in archery was effected by the continuation of muscle activity in the shoulders, the neck and the back at follow-through. The continuation of muscle activity in the draw side seemed to be especially significant for archery performance.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 413-447
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 448-462
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 463-466
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 467-468
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages App5-
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
  • Type: Cover
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages Cover15-
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (44K)
  • Type: Cover
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages Cover16-
    Published: March 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (44K)
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