The purpose of this study was to analyze the responses of foreign countries on the cancellation of the Games of the XII th Olympiad, Tokyo, 1940, and to clarify the principles underlying the arguments for and against the cancellation. The documents used for this study centered around the correspondence between Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Japanese governmental establishments abroad and the stored archives as to the Games of the Diplomatic Record Office of the Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The findings of this study are summarized as follows : After the outbreak of Janpan-China War in 1937, there were many opinions against the hosting the Games of the XII th Olympiad by the city of Tokyo as well as the participation in it which were expressed mainly by European countries and U.S.A., together with those for expressed by U.S.A. and Brazil. Olympism seemed to be the basic and standard thought for these opinions, and it was interpreted into two ways so that opinions were divided and varied. Some of the experts took the position that Olympism should be the means and occasion for "realizing the peace of the world", and others took it should be "independent from politics". Thus, such a pre-war problem of boycotting as the Games of the XII th Olympiad in Tokyo appears to entail the similar post-war pattern of thoughts and interpretations in repeated boycott cases of the Olympic Games.
In order to investigate the psychosocial factors influencing the daily exercise practices of both the elderly and aged people ,a survey was administered to the residential sample that consisted of 271 subjects who were living in their own homes and also between 60 and 90 years of age. The sample was divided into two subgroups; the exercise practice group (EPG) and the non-exercise practice group (N-EPG). The EPG was the subgroup which had the opportunity to do exetcise two times and more every week, whereas the N-EPG was the subgroup which had the opportunity to do exercise a few times every month or less. Both of the subgroups were healthy on their physical health status. The main result was as folows: It was found that the evaluation of the EPG concerning their own body images by using the body image check list tended to be positively higher than that of the N-EPG's body images. The psychosocial factors contributing to promote the daily exercise practices were analyzed by using the Hayashi's Quantification theory II on each sex. From the result, it was found that the most important psychosocial factors, which are common in both sexes,included "the self perceived health status" and "the attitude toward exercise or sport" .Furthermore it was also found that the feeling of subjective well-being of the EPG was significantly higher than that of the N-EPG by analyzing the Lawton's PGC morale scale scores for the elderly.
The purpose of the present study is to present a method for evaluating brief zygosity detemination by use of data consisted of physique which is obtained easily at schools. As a step, we investigate previous methods of zykosity tests and statistical analysis for similarity of twins. We then propose normalized statistics for physical fitness in adolescent twins to investigate the differences of distributions between within-pair of twins and the control group consisted of singletons. We make statistics which is absolute pair difference against the standard deviation in each age and sex to standardize data so that we can pool the data sets from different age and sex. For any pair of data (y_i, y_j) Statistics : Z_<ij> =ΔY_<ij>/σ where ΔY_<ij> is the absolute difference between y_i, and y_j. As the basic model, we consider a bivariate normal distribution with unknown correlation coefficient. We then consider for types of the assumptions on the equivalence of correlations of monozygotic twins (MZ) and dizygotic twins (DZ). Here we consider the following four models Model 1: ρ_1>ρ_2> 0 Model 2: ρ_1>ρ_2= 0 Model 3: ρ_1=ρ_2> 0 Model 4: ρ_1=ρ_2= 0 Where ρ_1 and ρ_2 are correlation coefficients between MZ and DZ respectively. The best model was selected by using the Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) . AIC is statistics produced by Akaike,H. in 1971 in order to estimate best model using observed model. The model is estimated by the method of the maximum likelihood. AIC = -2 log (maximum likelihood) + 2 (number of independently adjusted parameter within the model) According to the minimum AIC procedure, we will obtain the best model by picking up the one which attains the minimum value of AIC. By selecting the best model by AIC, it was found that 1) In the case of Body Height and Sitting Height, the correlation of MZ and DZ are significantly different. 2) The correlations of MZ are very high. ρ_1 of Body Heiht = 0.92 ρ_1 of Sitting Height = 0.87 3) On the other hand, those of DZ are relatively low and for Body Height ρ_2 is considered as zero. 4) In the case of Body Weight and Chest Cirtumference, ρ_1 and ρ_2 are considered to be identical. Since the number of DZ is very small, the results obtained in the previons section are not so reliable. The future study with increased number of DZ will be necessary. In this paper, Body Height, Body Weight, Chest Circumference and Sitting Height are modeled individually. However, it is also possible to consider these four date simultaneously.