Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 38 , Issue 3
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages Cover9-
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (232K)
  • Type: Cover
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages Cover10-
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (232K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages App3-
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (241K)
  • Hideaki Okubo
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 157-173
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate Hayashi Shojuro's seldom explored translation, "Mokuba no Sho" (The Book of Wooden Horse) and its publishing history, and to determine its meaning for the modern physical education in Japan. "Mokuba no Sho" is more of a book on horse vaulting than simply a book on horse riding because of its description of the five kinds of exercises from the back of the horse and twelve exercises from the side of horse. The contents of this book are in complete agreement and comspicious similarity to the French Army's textbook on gymnastics instruction "Ministere de la guerre (1st Ed. 1847) :Instruction pour l'enseignement de la gymnastique". Therefore, it is unquestionable that "Mokuba no Sho" was translated from it. Hayashi Shojuro (1824-1896, formerly a professer of French at Kaiseisho, National Academic Institute) was one of the most famous scholars at the end age of the Edo period.From December 1866 to the early spring of 1868, he also held an additional post as the official French translator for the Japanese Army in the cavalry, artillery and infantry divisions. This was necessary because the Tokugawa Shogunate employed a party of military advisers from France, whose leader was Captain Chanoine. Even though the translation of "Mokuba no Sho" is not clearly dated, it can be presumed that it was prepared in 1867 because of Hayashi's occupation as a translator for the party of French Military advisers and his subsequent military service for the Tokugawa Shogunate in the Boshin civil war from early 1868. It is well known fact that the party of French military adviser seriously considered basic gymnastics as necessary for soldier training, and taught Japanese soldiers how to do gymnastics (rentaiho). Furthermore, in the memorial presented to shogunate in 1867 (The Chanoine Memorial), it is clearly written that the party had brought with them a fully illustrated book on gymnastics. Initially Hayashi Shojuro read the book as the official translator. He took particular notice of the section on horse vaulting as training for the cavalry and subsequently translated it into Japanese. The historical meanings of this book for physical education in modern Japan are as follows : 1. It is the oldest book dealing with the physical education of the west. 2. This is a memorable book in the history of Japanese physical education because it was the first academic study based on an original foreign text, "Ministere de lA guerre (1st Ed.1847) : Instruction pour l'enseignement de la gymnastique." 3. During the first half of the Meiji period French gymnastics were for the most part by the military. For example, "Taiso Kyohan" (Textbook of Gymnastics) was written by the military, modeled after the French version. It was later applied to physical education in Japan's middle school System. "Mokuba no Sho" was the first book in the history on French gymnastics in the Meiji period. 4. This is the first book in which the scientific term of the study of physical education as "shintai undo gaku" (science of physical movement) was used. 5. This book shows us that the apparatus of gymnastics in Japan was derived from the French military gymnastics, especially horse vaulting for the training of the cavalry. Above all, "Mokuba no Sho" is memorable as the book which introduced modern European physical education to Japan.
    Download PDF (1686K)
  • Shiro Nakagomi, Aiko Okuda
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 175-185
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The central premise of this article is that crises and related crisis coping behavior (crisis mode) are prominent factors as turning points in personality development. Especially, it is hypothesized that the high mutuality of crisis mode contributes to personality development.Mutuality can be defined operationally as follows : an attempt at active solution during a crisis, self insight triggered by the crisis and the recognition of self-change after crisis. The present investigation was an attempt at analysing the athlete's coping behavior in crises experienced in sport settings and the solution of psychosocial developmental tasks during adolescence (ego identity formation). This was carried out by means of nomothetic and idiographic approaches. Fifty college male athletes completed four psychological scales related to crisis mode and ego identity formation : crisis mode interview, Marcia's identity status interview, occupational identity status scale, and occupational decision making process scale. Using the crisis mode interview, athletes' crisis modes were classified into one of five patterns (active exploration, passive exploration, avoidance, pendency and/or continuation, and calmness), and each pattern was examined for the features of identity formation mainly in respect to career decision making. Case studies for three types of crisis modes were presented, and their psychological mechanisms of crisis coping behavior and career decision making were analysed in detail. As a result, it was found that the pattern of crisis which, occured in an athlete's career, could also be detected in ego identity formation in other settings. It is concluded, therefore, that athletes learn a pattern of crisis coping behavior by experiencing crisis modes in their sport settings. The high mutuality of crisis modes in the sport setting seems to foster personality development and ego identity formation.
    Download PDF (1093K)
  • Hee Sik Kim, Yoshiyuki Matsuura, Kiyoji Tanaka, Atsushi Inagaki
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 187-200
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purposes of this study were to investigate the factorial structure and to establish a test battery for evaluating ability of daily living activity in the elderly. The subjects were 252 Korean elderly women, aged 60 to 94 years. First of all, questionnaire was applied to clarify the areas of activities of daily living in the elderly. Factor analysis with Normal Varimax criterion was applied to the data and the factors extracted were interpreted as locomotion of whole body, manipulation of upper limb, manipulation of finger, and change of posture. For the second place, the twenty four performance tests related to the areas of activities of daily living were selected. Factor analysis was applied to the 24×24 correlation matrix and the factors were rotated with Normal Varimax criterion. Ability of daily living activity consisted of coordination of whole body, coordination of upper limb and finger, agility, flexibility, muscular strength of upper limb. muscular strength of lower limb,balance, and speed of upper limb reaction. Test items included in the test battery were selected from a viewpoint of validity, reliability and decremental trend of each variable with aging. The following eight items are recommended as the test items for evaluating ability of daily living activity. The developed equation to determine ability of daily living activity score (ADLAS) was ADLAS=-1.02x_1+0.396x_2-0.434x_3-0.151x_4+0.189x_5-0.0111x_6-0.0156x_7-0.0198x_8+86.22;where x_1=walking with use of chair, x_2=trunk flexion, x_3=leg muscle endurance, x_4=stepping, x_5=grip strength, x_6=foot balance with eyes open, x_7=bar grip reaction, and x_8=hand working with pegboard. The equation of ADLAS was considered useful for evaluating ability of daily living activity in the elderly.
    Download PDF (1310K)
  • Keiko Itani
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 201-213
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recently a number of works concerning the conceptual approach to physical education have appeared in the U.S.A. Among these, the Basic stuff series published by the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance have received particular attention. The purpise of this study was to investigate the aims and principles of the conceptual approach and to examine what factors have influenced its development through the analysis of its social background and theoritical foundations as well as the characteristics of the Basic stuff series. The conceptual approach emphasizes on the learning of basic concepts selected from the body of knowledge in physical education. An acquisition and understanding of these concepts enable individuals to generalize thes learning experience to other learning experiences. It is koown that the conceptual approach enables students to solve problems that they would face in sport and physical exercise. and turther to develop their ability to educate themselves. The follwing factors were considered to have had a main influence on the development of this approach : 1. The educational reform movement in 1960s which placed particular emphasis on science and mathmatics promoted the development of subdisciplines in physical educdtion. The conceptual approach was considered as a way of teaching and learning with the basic concepts derived from the subdisciplines of physical education. 2. The educational reform movement in the 1970s focused particular emphasis on humanistic goal such as to develop self-actualization or the whole human being. Although the main concern was the development of student's affective domain, the development of their cognitive aspect also began to berecognized as another goal of physical education program. 3. The educational reform movement toward the academic excellence in education since the 1980s has highlighted the growing dilemma as to whether physical education can survive in the academic-oriented educational system. Physical education has been forced not only to establish its clear identity, but also to pursue its excellence. In order to prove its excellence, physical education teachers have to be prepared with the body of knowledge in physical education as well as to improve the quality of physical education applying the conceptual approach. It has been recognized that the unique role of physical education is to deal with individual's health and physical fitness. 4. Health and physical fitness have become a serious national concern recently Physical deucation is expected not only to provide all students with the opportunity to exercise properly but also to teach them the necessary skills and knowledge to maintain a healthy lifestyle. The conceptual approach can give students sound cognitive bases for continuing their self-education throughout their lives.
    Download PDF (1344K)
  • Hun Kyung Kim, Kiyoji Tanaka, Atsushi Inagaki, Kazuhiro Suzuki, Takahi ...
    Type: Article
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 215-227
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Physical activity, nutrition and dietary habits are hypothesized to be major factors that may have an influence on physical fitness and motor ability. This study was designed to determine what factors of daily living condition are associated with physical fitness and motor ability. Three hundreds and eleven boys, aged 12-14 years, were used in this study.Questionnaire consisted of 49 items, and they were categorized into physical exercise, dietary habit, rest and maturation. Nineteen physical fitness and motor ability elements were tested and skinfold thickness was measured at six sites using an Eiken-type caliper. Impedance (Z) was measured using a tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance plethysmograph (Selco SIF-891). Body density was calculated from the formula of Kim et al. To analyze the factorial structure in boys, principal factor analysis was applied to the correlation matrix which was calculated with 19 variables, and then five factors were extracted. The correlatioal analysis and path analysis were applied to confirm the hypothetical model. Significant correlations were obtained between factor muscular strength and muscular power and fat-free mass,factor muscular endurence and percent body fat (%fat), factor total body endurance and %fat, and factor balance and eating habit. In order to further examine the effect of daily living condition on physical fitness and motor ability, the degree of Contribution to each factor was calculated. Factor physique was found to have greater contrbution to factor muscular strength and muscular power, %fat to factor muscular enduranc and total body endurace, maturation to factor flexibity, and eating habit to factor balance. From these results, it might be suggested that physique, %fat and eating habit are major factors that affect physical fitness and motor ability of boys. The %fat was found to be one important factor that affects many physical fitness and motor abiity elements. The relationships between physical fitness, motor ability and daily living condition seem to be rather complicated, and a great deal of data should be accumulated for analysis of influence of daily living condition in boys.
    Download PDF (1161K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 229-231
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (151K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 232-243
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (693K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 244-249
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (366K)
  • Type: Bibliography
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 250-
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (39K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 251-
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (245K)
  • Type: Cover
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages Cover11-
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (383K)
  • Type: Cover
    1993 Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages Cover12-
    Published: September 01, 1993
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (383K)
feedback
Top