The purpose of this study was to make clear the process of establishment of the sport control system in CIS. For this purpose, I had a study on the enterprise for CIS to send the delegation to the 1992 Olympic games. It is possible to point out the special features of the process of the CIS sport control system having been established from 1990 to 1992 as follows. 1. The soviet sport system democratized and approched the western sport system before soviet disappeared at 1991. 2. There was the consensus that they want to keep the tradition of soviet being the winner on Olympic games. this consensus made it possible that CIS could send its delegation to the 1992 Olympic games after soviet disappeared within 3 months. 3. Ex-soviet sport leaders changed the name of sport organization, for example, from Soviet Olympic tommittee to CIS Olympic committee. but, they did not reorganize the inside of ex-soviet organization within 3 months after soviet diappeared. 4. The CIS Olympic delegation was organized by the special instruction of President of Republic of Rossia. 5. The real reorganization of CIS sport system will begin after 1992. These results suggest that the special features for CIS sport system, that the CIS basic organization is the same system of ex-soviet sport organization from 1991 to 1992. Only one financial system of CIS is different from that of ex-soviet. New financial system of CIS is consist of stats financial support, sport lottery which is same as at ex-soviet years and the finacinl support of western sponser enterprise. I may point it out that there were only 3 months before 1992 Olympic games starts,they did only change the name of organization. but, could not reorganize the sport system.so CIS sport system will construct after 1992 Olympic games.
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the activity of kenjyutsu, the traditional physical culture in Japan, practiced as a match or sport in the latter period of Edo era. The object of this study was Sekiguchi-school of Takeda family that was transmitted in the Yoshino River area in the province of Awa (Tokushima prefecture) . The authors investigated the actual condition and character of kenjyutsu in those days using the historical materials of "nogeiko" (the outdoor meet of kenjyutsu) of the school. The findings of this study were summarized as follows : 1) The "taryu-jiai", in which kenjyutsu had come to be practiced as a match in the latter period of Edo era, was carried mainly by the common people rather than the people in the class of samurai and was activated all over the country. 2) "Nogeiko" of Sekiguchi-school of Takeda family was intended to open to the public from the beginning, and it was planned elaborately and practiced systematically. Almost all of the matches in the "nogeiko" were practiced by one person against one, though these were practiced with some formations supposing an actual battle, and there were "metsuke"(referee) who judged victory or defeat. 3) These matches were practiced under the free and large-hearted atmosphere beeing unbound to the ethical idea of Confucianism, and this "nogeiko" had a character of an amusement or pleasure of the common people. 4) This case means that kenjyutsu was practiced as an activity of a match or sport, whose style agreed with several melkmarls pointed by Guttmann, in the province far from the governmental center of this country. This is assumed not to be particular in the area of Tokushima prefecture but to be general in the localities of this country in those days. 5) Practice of kenjyutsu as a match or sport like this and accumulation of the experience,which became a basic condition to accept modern sports since Meiji era in japan, seems to make the rapid diffusion of it easily.
The purpose of this study was to develop a rational and practical test for estimating the co-ordination ability of strength exertion (CASE) and to examine scale and description forms, test time and estimation time. A total of 89 college students were used as subjects. The test method was form fitting the exertion value of grip strength (GS) to the demand value appeared on display of personal computer (PC). A test of CASE was performed using 3 kinds of description forms on display of PC : bar chart, number, and wave. The demand values of bar chart and the other two were sinusoidal wave form of 0.3 Hz and 0.1 Hz, respectively. Tracking wave was the range from 5% to 25% of maximal grip strength value. The variables estimating CASE were measured by PC both 1) a maximal lag (ML1) and 2) the sum total of lag (SL2), between the demand and GS value (see Figure 5). The findings in this study can be summarized as follows : 1) It is a valid method to estimate by the rest time except the first 5-second period from the beginning of test because its mean value showed significantly larger than those in every other 5-second period both ML1 and SL2. 2) In estimating CASE, the scale form of kg unit is more effective than that of %. 3) Both tests of number and wave description form, the reliability of SL2 in the test for 30 seconds showed significantly higher value than that in the test for 60 seconds. Therefore it seemed that the test for 30 seconds is more effective. 4) The test of number description form was difficult for subjects to pursuit the demand value.Judged from the result of reliability, it seemed that bar chart and wave description forms are effective tests.
The purposes of this study were 1) to clarify some situational factors determining managerial behaviors of physical education managers, and 2) to examine the effectiveness of managerial behaviors and the moderating effect of situational characteristics on the relationship of managerial behaviors with organizational activities. Data were collected from 537 managers of physical education in elementary schools, junior high schools and senior high schools by a mail questionnair. The managers of physical education were asked to respond to the items about organizational behaviors, improvement of management, organizational learning style, organizational climate, task environment and managerial behaviors.The results were obtained by applying multiple regression analysis and ANOVA. Major findings were summarized as follows : 1) Task environmental characteristics affected managerial behaviors of physical education managers in elementary schools. Four dimentions of managerial behaviors in junior high schools were influenced by organizational learning style. Managerial behaviors in senior high schools were affected by organizational learning style and task characteristics. 2) Five dimentions of managerial behaviors determined the effectiveness of organizational attivities in elementary and junior high schools. 3) Task uncertainty in junior high schools and positive organizational learning style in senior high schools moderated the relationship of managerial behaviors with organizational activities.
The present study was designed to examine factors related to perceived health of the eldely. The data was obtained through questionnaries distributed to 604 (240 males, 364 females) elderly people, and X^2 test and Quantification Theory II were applied to the data. Main findings are as follows: 1. As the result of X^2 test between good-perceived health people and poor-perceived health people, the followinng nine factors have statistically significant (p<0.05). They are "presently working or not", "having roles or not in the neighborhood", "seeing physicians or not", "frequency of seeing physicians", "friendship network", "ADL (Activity of daily living)", "MPI・E scale", "MPI・N scale", and "MPI・L scale". 2. As the result of Quantification Theory II analysis, 7 factors such as presently working or not, having roles or not in the neighborhood, seeing physicians or not, friendship network, frequency of doing sports or exercise, ADL and MPI・N scale show a significant canonical correlation of R = 0.599 with good-poor perceived health of the elderly people. 3. The factor of the most strongly related to determining good-poor perceived health is MPI・N scale. In addition, friendship network and frequency of doing sports or exercise respectively show the second and the third strongest association with good-poor perceived health. In otherwise, ADL, presently working or not, having the significant role in the neighborhood or not, and seeing physicians or not are, respectively lesser association with good-poor perceived health. 4. As to each category of factors, lesser neuroticism, doing sports or exercise frequently and much friendship network, respectively promote to let the elderly determine better perceived health.
The factors involving muscle fatigue of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle were studied during 5-min isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Measurement of the MVC force, integrated electromyogram (IEMG) and the force induced by tetanic electrical stimulation (50 Hz, 2 s in duration) , recording of M wave from two subjects, and measurement of whole blood K^+ concentration were performed during the fatiguing exercise and recovery period of 1O min. k^+ concentration in the draining vein increased significantly from 3.4 ± 0.5 m Eq/l to 5.0 ± 1.1 m Eq/l and the area of the M wave obtained from two subjects decreased by 5-10% of the control value. These facts suggest that the resting membrane potential declined, leading to the loss of contraction force. The declining rate of the MVC force was bigger than that of the IEMG during the fatiguing exercise and at the early stage of the recovery period. While whole blood K^+ concentration recovered to its normal level quickly, there was a marked delay in the recovery of MVC force. These results suggest that the electrical excitation was not efficiently converted to muscle contraction. The MVC force declined in parallel to the 50Hz stimulation force, indicating that the central nervous system (CNS) failure was not involved in this experiments. Thus, we conclude that the failure in muscle membrane excitation and in excitation/contraction coupling are involved in the deteriorating force generating capacity of the FDI during the 5-min MVC.
The first purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of two different model-demonstrations on modeling of a sequential gross movement task. The second one is to clarify the visual search differences between the two models in terms of eye movements during observation. Thirty two undergraduate students (Male = 16, Female = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two expefimenta groups. One is subjective group (SG) -observing the model via VTR in the rear angle of model, and the other is looking-glass group (LGG)-observing the model via VTR in the front angle of model that demonstrated oppositely on the right and left direction of the task just like an image in the mirror. The dependent variables, A) the number of model-demonstrations to recall sequential movements completely and B) frequency, angle, and direction of eye fixation movements.Thus, the location and time of eye fixation, and eye movement patterns during observation at the initial and the final trial were employed. The results indicated as follows: (1) The subjective group showed significantly greater modeling effect in recalling the sequential movements than the looking-glass group. (2) The visual search pattern of the subjective group was characterized by searching the model's back and the periphery of the body. On the other hand, the looking-glass group's search pattern concentrated on the model's upper half of the body, exhibiting more eye movement variation and shorter eye fixation time than the subjective group.