Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 39 , Issue 2
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (21K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages App2-
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Junji Nakanishi
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages 77-89
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to present a conceptual process model of the consumer complaint behavior (CCB) in sport management. An effective process model of the CCB will contribute to the analysis and description of a post-purchase consumer behavior and the formulation of a defensive marketing strategy. The procedures of the study are as follows: (1) the first step provides a review of the previous study on CCB model such as Gronhaug's (1977) conceptual model of consumer complaining behavior, Andreasen's (1977) model of postupurchase consumer process, Day's (1977) post evaluation behavior model, Day and Landon's (1977) flowchart of consumer's postdissatisfaction decision process, Kojima's (1980) descriptive model of CCB, and Kashiwagi's (1985) model of post-purchase consumer behavior. The necessary perspectives and hypothetical constructs to build the CCB model in sport management are deduced from these CCB models: (2) In the second step, a conceptual process model of CCB in sport management is presented. A reasonable approach that breaks the process down into three major components is used to build the CCB model in sport management. These components include "marketing factors controlled or primarily influenced by marketers", "consumer factors", and "circumstantial/environmental factors that are independent of the marketing and consumer factors": (3) At last, each phase of this conceptual process model in sport management is described and discussed .
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  • Manabu Sakai, Noboru Takamoto, Hironori Sato, Kimio Kushima
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages 90-99
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of relatively short-term smoking habits (less than one-year) on the physlcal fitness of college students. This paper deals with the analysis of the results of 1500 m runs, Step tests, FEV1% and Kaup index to determine the effects of smoking on cardiocirculatory functions. The subjects were 5381 male college students, aged 19-20, in Hiroshima who took our physical fittness tests and responded to our questionnaires. Our findings can be summarized as follows: 1) The performance of 1500 m runs was lower in smokers than in nonsmokers. Thus, the general endurance of smokers is considered to be inferior to that of nonsmokers. 2) The score of Step tests in smokers was lower than that in nonsmokers. This indicates that smoking habits could influence cardiorespiratory functions. 3) There was no significant difference in the score of FEV1% by the length of smoking priod. 4) In reference to Kaup index, smokers tend to have slender figures in comparison on to nonsmokers. In this way, we conclude that the short-term smoking habits, even one-year length, may exert negative influences on physical fitness such as general endurance. Therefore, it is important to make smokers quit smoking at the early stage of the habituation of smoking.
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  • Shin-ichiroh Yamamoto, Kimitaka Nakazawa, Iwao Fujisaki, Hideo Yano
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages 100-108
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Stretch stimulus of activated muscle results in a reflex response consisting of short-latency (M1) and long-latency (M2) components. Although the mechanism of the M2 response remains the theme of controversy, at least, it was suggested that the M2 response results from traveling over a long-loop supraspinal pathway. In the present study, reflex electromyographic (EMG) activities of synergistic muscles were recorded at different elbow angles; 20, 50, and 80 deg, for nine subjects. Twenty times stretch stimuli were applied to elbow flexors by a torque motor during submaximal isometric contraction. Reflex EMG activities of m.biceps brachii (BB) and m.brachioradialis (BRD) were divided into four components, i.e., the back ground activities (BGA: -100-0 ms from the onset of the stretch stimulus), short latency reflexes (M1: 20-50 ms), long latency reflexes (M2: 50-100 ms) and Voluntary activities (VOL: 100-150 ms). The iEMGs of M1, M2 and VOL were normalized by BGA at the elbow angle of 50 deg. The results indicated that the relative M2 magnitude of the muscles varied with the elbow angle, and the variation parterns were differed in the two muscles; BB was most activated at 20 deg, inversely, BRD was most activated at 80 deg. From these results, therefore, it was suggested that the central co-ordination patterns in synergistic muscles were depended on joint angles.
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  • Masato Maeda, Haruo Nomura, Eiji Shamoto, Toshimichi Moriwaki
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages 109-117
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Kinetic analysis of javelin throwing has been a difficult subject, because the force applied to javelins is unknown and javelins are originally elastic. Therefore, a javelin with a 6-component force transducer is developed in the present reserch. The javelin is equipped with a thin pipe at the gripping position, and the pipe has elastic hinges to mesure the force by utilizing strain gages. The six components of the force applied to the javelin by one male javelin thrower is measured using the force transducer. The major results obtained are as follows; The javelin with the transducer is heavier in weight, and smaller in moment of inertia and in lower compliance at the grip as compared to the ordinary javelins. The measuring system developed is found to be satisfactory to measure the forces in javelin throw, since the relation between the measured voltages and applied forces is linear, and the resonant frequency of the transducer is higher than that of the force measured during actual javelin throw. As a result of a measuering experiment, the force components change mainly from the moment when the thrower stepped his right foot on the ground to release the javelin after run and crossover-step. The peeks of the force components apeared just before the release, and the maximum values are 14.00 kgf in the axial direction of the javelin, 7.21 kgf, 4.62 kgf in the lateral directions, 0.12 kgf・m around the axial direction, and 0.64 kgf・m, 0.77 kgf・m around the lateral directions.
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  • Jim Riordan
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages 118-125
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Masayoshi Nakayama
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages 126-138
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper is intended to investigate the influences of policies upon sports in Yoshida-mura of Iishi-gun in Shimane-ken as a case of those in the depopulated areas. Policies on sports were dynamically analyzed as well as the development or transfiguration of sports were clarified. The results are summarized as follows: 1) In the changing political and social situations, new measures for sports promotion were taken in Yoshida-mura. Some of those measures were ones that acceded to the policies of the Shimane-ken authorities, and affected sports in Yoshida-mura. As a result, the Yoshida-mura sports association was intensified as a substitutional agent for the administration of sports promotion in Yoshida-mura, being taken into the systematic orders which link up with the Shimane-ken and the Iishi-gun sports associations. Also, sports events run by that organization seemed to have a nature of obligated and restrained involvement latently: a kind of power. 2) It is critical to provide sports facilities in the process of the promotion of sports. However, sports facilities are provided within the limits of funds and priority compared with other measures. Naturally, provision or non-provision of sports facilities influences the inhabitants' sports activities. These problems are influenced by the nature of depopulation and the attitudes people hold toward sports. 3) In the situation of continuing depopulation, sports practice and its meaning have become related to the movement of life improvement, together with the policy on community development. The Yoshida-mura sports association has been reformed again in relation to this movement. However, it has not yet found a way to promote sports practice as a part of life improvement.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages 139-149
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages 150-
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages 151-
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (23K)
  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: July 10, 1994
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (23K)
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