Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 41 , Issue 6
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages Cover21-
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages Cover22-
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (438K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages App9-
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Takahiro Kitamura, Masashi Kawanishi, Masaru Ikeda
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 437-448
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to empirically classify sports participants by sports lifestyle (SLS), and to asses the relationships between SLS and community sentiments. The AIO approach was used to operationnalise the SLS. A battery of AIO statements partly based on the literature, was developed specifically for this study. The data for this study were collected from a total of 526 sports participants at two sports facilities located in metropolitan Tokyo. Factor analysis was performed to identify the factor structure underlying SLS. Then based on the results of factor analysis, the sample was classified into five clusters by cluster analysis (Ward's method). Further, the community sentiment scores for each group were compared with the scores for the other groups. The main results are as follows: 1. Eight SLS factors were identified and named: (1) fashion, (2) communication, (3) spectator, (4) health oriented, (5) community, (6) arts, (7) leisure oriented and (8) victory. 2. Sports participants were classified into five groups by cluster analysis, based on factor analysis and identified by SLS profiles: (1) athletes, (2) sport mates, (3) community participation, (4) opinion leaders and (5) personal participants. 3. Some differences were emerged between the groups regarding community sentimens. 1) The athletes and the personal participants showed low scores not only on overall community sentiments but also on the factor scores "communication" and "community". 2) The sport mates also had low scores on overall community sentiments. However, they had the highest factor scores in the five groups on "communication". 3) The community participation and the opinion leaders had high scores on overall community sentiments, and also had d high factor scores on "community". These results suggest that the sports participant's SLS correlates with community sentiments, and it is possible that sport might have a more positive effect on community development if programs were designed taking SLS into consideration.
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  • Kazuyuki Ogiso, Atsuro Kushima, Toshifumi Yasui, Kiyohide Aoyama
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 449-462
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The puropose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate the pattern of change in the sprinting speed that is the final results of the sprinting movements, and (b) to find out whether the characteristics in the sprinting speed change due to the differences in age, sex, sprinting ability and training status. One-hundred thirty male and 123 female ordinary students aged 6 to 18, and 30 male and 23 female sprint runners aged 9, 10, 11 and 18 participated in this study. They were instructed to excute an exhaustive sprinting. Sprinting times ranged from about 20 to 30 sec. The elapsed times were measured every five meters in their sprinting. In the analysis, the polynomial curve fitting from 5th-degree to 9th-degree was used for the predictions of the sprinting distances with respect to the elapsed times every 0.1 sec. From the relations of the distances to times the following speeds were computed: 1) the sprinting speed that was computed by differentiating the sprinting distance, and 2) the average speed form start to the elapsed time every 0.1 sec. The sprinting speed reached the peak speed after about 6to 7 sec from start. The average speed showed the peak speed after about 15 sec from start. These characteristics with respect to time remained unchanged despite the differences in age, sex, sprinting performance and training status. The time at the maximum average speed was particularly stable. The maximum average speed was about 90% of the maximum sprinting speed. This result also remained unchanged despite the differences in age, sex, sprinting performance and training status,respectively. These results indicate that the pattern of change in the sprinting speed with respect to time is rather constant without the distinction of age, sex, sprinting performance and training status. The sprinting performance, however, improved with age and by training. This result was mostly caused by the increase of the maximum sprinting speed with age and by training. These characteristics with respect to time and speed seem to cause the differences in the sprinting distance.
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  • Kimio Kushima, Takaki Izumi, Manabu Sakai, Hironori Sato, Noboru Takam ...
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 463-473
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking habits on serum lipids in middle-aged male workers considering the effect of body mass index which would be decreased by habitual smoking. The subjects were 1431 middle-aged men who worked at a enterprise in Hiroshima prefecture. The effects of habitual smoking on serum lipids were evaluated by two models of analysis of covariance (PC-SAS: GLM procedure) involving several confounding factors. Model 1 involved such confounding factors as body mass index, age, drinking habits, physical activity, working system and type of job, and model 2 involved the confounding factors except body mass index in model 1. In model 1 the effect of body mass index is adjusted, and in model 2 the effect of body mass index is reflected in the results of analysis. The main results are summerized as follows: 1) On the whole, smokers indicated lower body mass index than non-smokers. 2) Smokers indicated lower HDLC level and higher atherogenic index than non-smokers. This means that smokers have higher risk of arteriosclerotic disease than non-smokers. 3) Lower body mass index in smokers had no benefical effects for their serum lipids.
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  • Kozo Tomiyama, Masashi Kawanishi, Kazunobu Miyata
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 474-483
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    With the recent development of commercial sports clubs, the behavioral characteristics of members are receiving increased attention from sports management researchers. The purpose of this study is to identify the behavioral characteristics of Japanese commercial sports club members. The 416 samples were selected at two commercial sports clubs in Tokyo. The sample was categorized into four groups using a two-dimensional analyzing model, the two dimensions being frequency of participation in activities and the way members commitment their sports club in their minds. These four groups have the following respective characteristics: both frequency and commitment of the club are high (Group 1) , frequency is high but commitment of the club is low (Group 2) , both frequency and commitment of the club are low (Group 3), and frequency is low but commitment of the club is high (Group 4). ANOVA has revealed that member's evaluation of club service and mobility between clubs are useful for classifying club members into the four categories. Members belonging to [Group 1] are satisfied with the assurance and empathy of club service, while members belonging to [Group 4] are satisfied with the service's tangibility, reliability and responsiveness. Members in [Group 2] think of moving to another club when the club gets too crowded, while members belonging to [Group 3] think of moving to another club when the member's fee rises and accessibility becomes difficult.
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  • Hideki Takagi, Teruo Nomura, Atsunori Matsui, Takahisa Minami
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 484-491
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to obtain and standardize the drag coefficients of the bodies under water of Japanese competitive swimmers. This study was made with the cooperation of 33 Japanese competitive swimmers (24 males and 9 females at the mean age of 18.9±5.7-yrs.). The physical features of each swimmer were measured before the experiment. Each swimmer was towed 20 meters at five speeds under the water in a swimming pool, using a "reel-up system" developed by Nomura et al.(1994). The swimmer maintained a "gliding position" while being towed. The posture of the swimmer was recorded using two underwater video cameras. The output data on the towing speed and drag from the reel-up system were entered into a personal computer for operational processing. As a result of this analysis, it turned out that were the significant correlations between the drag and the cross-sectional area (Ac), the surface area (As), the 0.667 power of the volume (7/3) of the swimmer. Therefore, Ac, As and ∇^lt2/3gt of the body were adopted as a representative area, and the drag coefficient was calculated using the following equation (1). Cd = 2R/ρSV^2 (1). Each representative average of the drag coefficients depends on a representative area (Ac:Cd=0.789±0.096, As:Cd=0.030±0.003, ∇^lt2/3gt:Cd 0.338±0.032). There was no correlation between the drag coefficient and the best record of each swimmer. Consequently, the result of this experiment is summed up as follows. It can be said that although the passive drag of the human body under water is closely related to the area of the body, the value of the drag coefficient has no direct effect on the swimming record.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 492-496
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 497-501
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (590K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 502-527
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 528-535
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Index
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 536-539
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages 540-
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (151K)
  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages Cover23-
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (24K)
  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 6 Pages Cover24-
    Published: March 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (24K)
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