The circumstances of physical education and sports in Japan is facing a big change. This change is due to the explosion of people's needs for sports and the idea and the system on post World War revolution. What are the Idea of physical education and sports? It's obvious that the reform was accomplished by the occupied power. By grounding the documentation of GHQ/SCAP-Civil Information & Education Section, the author will approach the process of the establishment on the reform of idea and fundamental framework of physical education and sports in the period of setting up the branch of physical education in Education Division to the completion of Educational Mission's Reports. The author will analize the important two documents: 1) lecture note titled "physical education" by Major Norviel, Officer of the branch of physical education, 2) report-draft by Dr. McCloy, a member of the mission and the professor of Iowa University.
To better understand the factors influencing the participation in sport and exercise of the middleaged and elderly, a theoretical framework that explains their exercise participation (The Exercise Participation Model) needs to be proposed. Recent studies have revealed some factors influencing participation in physical activities. These are classified into external factors, psychological factors, and antecedent factors. The purposes of this study were to examine the contributing factors in forming phases of exercise participation and to propose the exercise participation model for the middle-aged and elderly. Forty-seven subjects, who were from 31 to 70 years old, were interviewed. This study classified their phases of exercise participation into four phases: regular participants, irregular participants, candidates for participation, and their unconcerned about participation in sport and exercise. For all four phases a typical case of phase was presented to understand that what factors contribute to form the phases, and charts were individually drawn to illustrate the linkage between psychological factors and four phases of exercise participation. The differences of psychological factors among these phase were analyses through the contents of the interview. As a result, it was found that the exercise participation of the middle-aged and elderly tended to be influenced by psychological factors such as emotion, self-confidence, worrying to own health state, subjective standards of life event including sport, and effect of sport. These psychological factors constituted characteristic features of the exercise participation phases. Lastly, "The Exercise Participation Model" was presented from study by integrating our study findings with some recent studies.
Im Laufe der Entwicklung des Skisports haben sich verschiedene Techniken als bewahrt herausgestellt, fur die eine Reihe praktischer Ubungen vorliegen. Der Zweck dieser Betrachtung besteht darin, dab die Hauptbestandteile der Skitechnik ins Klare gebracht werden sollen. Darum wurde der Versuch gemacht, die Techniken in Bewegungsfaktoren und Lenkungsfaktoren zu differenzieren. Es wird damit gezeigt, dab man durch Analyse der Technniken die Unterschiede in den einzelnen Ubungen logisch erklaren kann, die Techniken ferner per Computer systematisch ordnen und so fur den ubersichtlichen Gebrauch zuganglich machen kann.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the production and sale of skis at the time when skiing was introduced into Japan. The historical documents examined in this paper were newspapers in those days and "Ski Teikahyo", which was a price Iist published by Tanaka Ironworks. The findings of this study are as follows: Lerch, T. E. first taught how to use skis in Japan. Since skiing encouraged by the Thirteenth Division met the needs of the people living in the snow country, the interest in skiing rapidly increased. Obviously, the supply of skiing equipment was indispensable to the spreading of skiing. Regarding Tanaka Ironworks as a suitable factory where equipment could be produced, the Thirteenth Division soon began to teach Tanaka Ironworks how to produce it. To extend its sales, Tanaka Ironworks advertised in newspapers. Tanaka Ironworks also presented skis to some members of the royal family. They eventually got the patent of making skiing equipment. As a result, Tanaka Ironworks became well-known. Tanaka Ironworks also became a manufacture attached to the Etushin Ski Club. The Ironworks also had agents in Takada, Nagaoka, Yamagata, Akita, Otaru, and Asahikawa, thus establishing the system of equipment supply to be widely existent in the northern part of Japan. Consequently, the Thirteenth Division not only tried hard to spread the art of skiing all over the snow country, but also fostered the Tanaka Ironworks, which remained a major supplier of skiing equipment there-after.
Some trained long-distance runners have excellent ability to control running pace. The present study focused on the Race Recall (RR) situation where the runners were required to run a given distance at the specific pace (e.g., to run 1000 m at 3 min.), and assumed that successful runners in PR performance (PRP) could use efficient cognitive strategies. The purposes of this study were as follows: 1) to identify the factor structure of Pace Recall strategies (PRS) used in the PR situation, 2) to clarify the differences in PRS use between groups classified by levels of PRP and training. A factor analysis revealed that PRS consisted of seven factors: following other runners (F1), focusing on perceived exertion of body (F2), focusing on running pitch (F3), focusing on perceived exertion of legs (F4), imaging previous running (F5), focusing on body movement (F6) , and referring to time (F7). From the contents of each factor, it was considered that F2, F3, F4, F5, and F6 of PRS implied self-observation strategy, which referred to focusing on and monitoring one's internal states. The main result of this study showed that well trained runners, in comparison with less trained runners, had superior PRP, and more frequently used four factors of self-observation strategy (F3, F4, F5, and F6 of PRS). These results supported findings of research on attention strategy and sensory monitoring under psychological stress.
The purpose of this study was to investigate factorial structure of physical fitness and to construct a test battery for evaluating fundamental physical fitness in elderly women. Fourteen test variables representing muscle strength, muscle power, flexibility, balance, agility and respiratory function were administered to 338 elderly women aged 60 to 89 years by considering the validity, safety and convenience of tests. Factor analysis was applied to the correlation matrix consisting of 14 variables, and 4 factors were interpreted as follows: muscle strength, flexibility, neuromuscular function and respiratory function. It was inferred that factorial structure of physical fitness in the elderly women consisted of the above-mentioned 4 physical fitness factors. Furthermore, the decline of the specificity of physical fitness elements was suggested from the examination of the factorial structure of physical fitness in elderly women. Considering the factorial validity and practicability of tests, the following 4 test items were recommended for assessing the physical fitness in elderly women: X_1 = grip strength (right), X_2 = trunk rotation (left), X_3 = stepping and X_4 = breath-holding. Next, principal component analysis was applied to the variable correlation matrix, and the first principal component was interpreted as fundamental physical fitness factor (FPFF). The multiple correlation between FPFF and 4 physical fitness variables selected Was significant (R=0.876, P<0.01), and 4 test items were considered to be suitable for the assessment of FPFF. The following equation for estimating fundamental physical fitness score (FPFS) was developed; FPFS (A) =1.564X_1 + 0.313X_2 + 0.343X_3 + 0.277X_4-32.853. Further, when the breath-holding test was dangerous to administer for elderly women, FPFS could be sufficiently estimated by the formula by means of the vital capacity (X_5); FPFS (B)=1.382X_1 + 0.275X_2 + 0.334X_3 + 0.010X_5-38.515. Assessment criterion ranking by a 5-point scale in each age was constructed using a regression equation to age.