Twelve-minute run test developed by Cooper in 1968 is a popular field test to evaluate an individual's cardiorespiratory fitness. However, the test requires high subject motivation and is accompanied by a high cardiovascular risk because of its maximal nature. In an attempt to avoid this flaw, this study sought to develop a 12-min submaximal run test and to validate it as a field test of cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty-eight men, aged 19-34 years (22.3±3.6), served as subjects. Individual's cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by the distance covered in 12 minutes at the intensity corresponding to 13 on the Borg's ratings of perceived exertion (RPE13). All of the subjects performed a maximal stress test, the 12-min submaximal run test and the 12-min maximal run test. VO_<2max> and VO_<2AT> of the subjects averaged 57.9±7.5 ml/kg/min and 45.4±8.0 ml/kg/min, respectively. The distance covered in 12-min submaximal run test (2758±306 m) was significantly shorter than that covered in 12-min maximal run test (3105±394 m). Analyses of data indicated that aerobic capacity (VO_<2max> and VO_<2AT>) significantly correlated with the 12-min submaximal run (r=O.85 and O.86, respectively) and with the12-min maximal run (r=0.77and 0.81, respectively). Although the intensity of the 12-min submaximal run test was lower, their relationships were higher than that of the 12-min maximal run test. Our findings suggest that 12-min submaximal run test is a better cardiorespiratory fitness test than 12-min maximal run test. Furthermore, we attemped to develop equations to predict VO_<2max> and VO_<2AT> using the distance covered in 12-min submaximal run and age. Multipule regression analyses to predict VO_<2AT> and VO_<2max> yielded the following equations: the distance in the 12-min submaximal run (m) X_1 and age (yr) X_2. VO_<2max>=0.0021X_1(m) -0.52X_2(yr) +0.75 (R=0.89, SEE=3.81ml/kg/min) VO_<2AT>=0.0019X_1(m) -0.56X_2(yr) +17.93 (R=0.89, SEE=3.64 ml/kg/min) It was concluded that the distance covered during the 12-min submaximal run was a highly valid indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness.
The purpose of this study was to develop the observation checklist to physical education class through analyzing the structure of observer's evaluation viewpoints. The questionnaire consisting of 31 items was prepared and applied to teachers who attended to and observed "the physical education classes (65) opened to the public'' at 13 elementary schools. With the Factor Analysis, 5 factors were extracted. These could be named as follows; 1) teacher's interaction, 2) learning environment, 3) momentum of instruction, 4) effective learning, 5) motivated learning. These factors were well consistent with the requisites for effective teaching suggested by findings of the researches on teaching physical education. From analyzing the correlations between a comprehensive evaluation item to physical education class and 5 factors, the significant relationships were recognized with all of factors. In comparing its relationships with attendance frequency (observation experiences) of teachers to "physical education class opened to the public'', the experienced teachers (attending 8 more times) tended to observe and evaluate with more various viewpoints than others. In order to develop a convenient checklist to physical education class,15 items were selected from 5 factors. As the result of the factor analysis, the stable structure consisting of same 5 factors was extracted. Thus, it is supposed that this checklist is available as a instrumentation for the observer to evaluate physical education class.
Although there has been much interest in the phenomena of athletic retirement from high-performance athletic competition, little study into this area has been done. The purpouse of this paper is to explore and describe the experiences of elite athletes who faced to the end of their athletic career and moved to a different stage in their life, from the viewpoint of reconfirmation of ego identity. In this study, personal interviews were conducted with seven former athletes. Trough the interviews, the athletes identified the reasons for their retirement, and reflected on their feelings during and after their athletic career. Through the informations obtained from the interviews, they could be classified into five types, which is composed of two factors, image of retirement from athletics and coping at present. These types are called the statuses of recnfirmation of ego identity, e.g., identity reachivement, related in-field achivement, stagnant defeatism, blind searching, and escapism. The psychological traits of these types are explained through these cases. According to the results, as previous studies have reported, they faced some degree of difficulty in the transition from their athletic career. And as this study proposed, six factors, which this author calls over-identification with sport, life stage pressere, social expectations, future outlook, acceptance of role, and support, interact with each other and influence the transition in each cases.