Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 41 , Issue 5
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages Cover17-
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages Cover18-
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (204K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages App8-
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Sumiko Uchiyama, Haruki Uchiyama
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 305-317
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is considered that all arguments of dance studies presuppose the dichotomy or binary opposition of "substance" versus "attribute". However, it may be safely said that the limitation of dance studies exists in this "substantial" standpoint. With the assumption that dance actions are a non-substantial existence and all the oppositions in dance actions repeatedly cause a series of purposeless circular motions, this study aims to offer a new argument through examining the substantialism in dance studies while focusing on Keizaburo Maruyama's theory, especially on his theory of "circular motion of life". The following conclusions were reached after examining the problem above: 1) As no substance was found in dance actions, dance actions are a non-substantial existence. 2) Circular motions from "becoming" to "being" or from "being" to "becoming" are kept up between surface consciousness and unconsciousness in a dance enjoyment, and maintained consciousness and unconsciousness in a dance creation. 3) The ultimate objective of dance actions is not the "discovery" of meaning which implies substantial existence, but the "creation" of a new meaning and beauty. For the above reasons, it is considered that a new standpoint of the loss of the foundation of dance actions means the disappearance of the traditional ultimate object from dance actions and those actions themselves have both instrument and object. Therefore, it is regarded as a very important factor that not the "meaning discovering model", which has been considered as a foundation of dance actions, but the "meaning creating model", which creates a new interpretation of dance actions that should be taken for a standpoint of dance studies.
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  • Koh-ichi Nakano
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 318-327
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In Japan spreading of skiing is said to have originated from the ski instruction of Lerch, an Austrian officer, in Takada district since January 12 in 1911. But Nagai, a professor of gymnastics in Tokyo Higher Normal School, indicated that he had done it before Lerch. Staying in Sweden to search for Swedish gymnastics from 1907, Nagai had practised skiing for the study of the physical activity of the Japanese nation. From the end of December in 1910 fell on the 3rd ski season (1910-11) since his return to Japan in early 1909, he started an action to spread skiing in the prefecture of Akita, next to Yamagata, because he got a chance to go to snow area in winter for a course in gymnastics, and after returning to Tokyo, he wrote an article introducing Swedish winter sports in the newspaper "Jijishinpoh (時事新報)" and so on, and in the next ski season (1911-12) he gave ski instruction in the north-eastern section of Japan in the first half of January in 1912. But these activities amounted to no more than an introduction of skiing, and had little influence. On the other hand, at the end of December in 1910 was the same time Nagai started his action, Takada Division started a research for popularizing skiing before Lerch arrived at his post. They accomplished its study in this ski season (1910-11), and in the next ski season (1911-12), they started an action to extend their influence all over Japan, and almost succeeded in it after holding the opening ceremony of Esshin Skiing Club (越信スキ-倶楽部) on February 11 in 1912 fell on the next month Nagai visited the north-eastern section of Japan. Though Nagai used a skiing style with two poles, Lerch's one with one pole has consequently spread in the north-eastern section of Japan.
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  • Reiko Tanaka
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 328-339
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In recent years young Japanese women have become conscious of their own bodies and many of them are trimming down their weight, led to research focusing on their slimming wish fulfillment. The purpose of this study is to clarify the forming slim body made up concretely between one's body and the social system, and it's interrelationship with socio-cultural context. In order to achieve this, the author have attempted to do field research; the interview and participant observation with nine junior college women. In the analysis of field data, the main results of slimming practice and socio-cultural background of slimness consciousness are summarized as follows. (1) The author makes up perspectives and framworkes in relation to cultural values with sex role and gender identity, beauty, attitudes towards fashion, eatinghabits and health status. (2) Young Japanese women lose their model as a mother, and are not in favor of motherly feminine body type. As a result, ideal feminine among them changes in one's self-image, body image and beautiful figure. They think the dominant ideal of female beauty was androgynous, adolescent body type. (3) Pursuit of slimness may be regarded as adjustment to present social requirement. (4) Popular magazines towards women seriously influence on their ideal body. And slim bodies play an important part in making distinction one's self from others as an opposition to "obesity/slimness". (5) The author discusses the socio-cultural context of forming slim bodies among young women, and explains their forming slim bodies by the concepts of "reforming" bodies. As reforming slim bodies lay self identity in compensation for self-independence in their ways.
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  • Toru Sato
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 340-351
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In den letzten Jahren ist die Forschung uber Sporttechnik immer wichtiger geworden. Die Mehrdeutigkeit der Begriffe in der Sporttechnik hat aber in Japan oft eine einheitliche Diskussion uber Sporttechnik behindert. Die Ursache liegt darin, daβ es keine treffenden japanischen Worter gibt, um Ubung und Bewegung genau zu unterscheiden. Der Zweck dieser Forschung ist es, auf die Problematik der hierarchischen Einordnung der Begriffe "Ubung" und "Bewegungstechnik" hinzuweisen, durch die Uberprufung einiger Beispiele, die sich auf die Bewegungstechnik beziehen. Nach der internationalen Definition ist die Sporttechnik das Synonym der Bewegungstechnik und beschrankt sich daher auf den Bereich des Bewegungsablaufs. Der Bewegungsablauf als solcher ist aber nicht als Technik zu verstehen, obwohl er ein rationelles Verfahren fur die Losung dieser Aufgabe ist, und zwar weil unter der Technik ein Prozeβ der Erkenntnis zu verstehen ist, auf dessen Grundlage eine bessere Losung fur den bestimmten Zweck angewandt wird. Technik darf namlich nicht substantiell erfaβt werden. Nach dieser Feststellung uber die Rationalitat bei der Losung der Bewegungsaufgabe kann ein Verfahren, d.h. die Bewegungstechnik, zu einer Ubung werden. Das bedeutet, daβ eine Technik zugleich eine Ubung sein kann. Eine Ubung und der Bewegungsablauf als ein rationelles Verfahren stehen nicht immer auf einer fixierten hierarchischen Struktur, wie man es bisher vereinfachend verstanden hat. Die Sphare der Bewegungstechnik ist je nach der Sphare der Bewegungsaufgabe variabel. Daher kann man z.B. eine Bezeichnung wie "Brustschwimmtechnk" ohne Einschrankung als die Sphare der Aufgabe verstehen. Der Anwendungsbereich der Bewegungstechnik darf nicht auf die Bewegungsweise des Korpers beschrankt werden. Es sollte berucksichtigt werden, auf welcher spharischen Grundlage die bessere Losung fur eine Bewegungsaufgabe angewandt wird. Aufgrund dessen kann ein Bewegungsverfahren nur dann eine Bewegungstechnik genannt werden, wenn es Moglichkeiten hat, noch in anderer Weise auszufuhren.
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  • Yutaka Kano, Hideyuki Takahashi, Yasunori Morioka, Hiroshi Akima, Ken ...
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 352-359
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relationship between the thigh muscle composition and the sprinting performance was investigated in 11 male adult sprinters (age/20.8±0.9 yrs, 100 m sprint time/11.20±0.33 sec). Axial images of the thigh muscle were taken by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at upper (70%) and middle (50%) position in femur. From these images, cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris, the hamstring and the adductor muscles were measured. The results of the regression analysis showed significant correlations between 100 m sprint time and both CSA of adductor and hamstring muscles at 70% position (r=-0.72 and r=-0.67, respectively). There were no significant correlations between 100 m sprint time and CSA of adductor or hamstring muscles at 50% position, and neither quadriceps femoris mudcles at 70 nor 50% positions. These results suggest that greater muscle volume of hamstring and adductor at upper position affect sprinting performance.
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  • Naoomi Kusafuka
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 360-368
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study follows the author's earlier study: "The Procedure of Making out 'The first Educational Mission's reports' on the Reform of Physical Education and Sports on Post World War II". The study approaches the process of the planning reform projects on Physical Education and Sports which the first Educational Mission's reports suggested the idea and its course, from March 1946 untill April 1947 that new school year started. And then, the author will analyze the important three documents: 1) analyzing the subjects and its framework of the program by Memorandums by Physical Education Ofticer. C.I.E., GHQ/SCAP, 2) analyzing the setting up for the production of atheletic equipment as the problems of urgency by C.I.E. Special report, and 3) analyzing the substance of Democratization on Physical Education and Sports by Press conference report.
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  • Tomoyasu Kondo, Yoshinori Okade
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 369-379
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seit Anfang der 80er Jahre wurde das Konzept der Korpererfahrung in die fachdidaktische Diskussion in der B. R. Deutschland eingefuhrt. Es wurde zuerst von Jurgen Funke vorgeschlagen und ist noch heute mit den Namen von Funke und Gerhart Treutlein verbunden. Die Vertreter dieses Gedankens versuchten, ihr fachdidaktisches Modell vom Korper aus zu begrunden. Als Hintergrund der Entstehung dieses Konzepts kann man auch solche Phanomena erkennen, die mit Begriffen wie Verschwinden des Korpers oder Wiederkehr des Korpers in der hochindustriellen Gesellschaft und der Schule heute gekennzeichnet werden. Deswegen ist das Konzept in der fachdidaktischen Diskussion mit den Begriffen Ereignen meines Korpers und Zuruckgewinnen des Subjekts gepragt. Man bezeichnet heute diesen Versuch als Korpererfahrung. Doch welche Erfahrungen ergeben sich, und welche Moglichkeiten bietet das Konzept eigentlich fur das Fach Sport heute? Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, versuchen wir, die bisherigen Erfahrungen in der Praxis zusammenzufassen, um so auch in Japan ein fachdidaktisches Modell entwickeln zu konnen. Fur die Analyse orientieren wir uns an den folgenden Punkten: a) Verbesserung der Kommunikationsfahigkeit, b) Bestatigung der Identitat, c) Erhohung der Sensibilitat der Sinnesorgane und Steigerung der korperlichen Funktionen, d) Verbesserung der Leistungsfahigkeit, e) Veranderlichkeit der Kultur, f) korperliches Wohlbefinden. Mit diesen sechs Aspekten beschreiben wir die Korpererfahrung, wie sie in zwei Buchern von Funke (1983) und von Treutlein (1986) wiedergegeben wird. In Funkes Buch finden sich vorwiegend Erfahrungen zu den Punkten a) bis c). Dagegen stehen in Treutleins Buch die Punkte d) bis e) im Vordergrund. Der Unterschied der in beiden Buchern beschriebenen Erfahrungen liegt a) in dem im Unterricht behandelten Lehrstoff und dem Alter der Schuler, b) in der Grundeinstellung der beiden Autoren selbst zur Korpererfahrung, c) im Stellenwert der Korpererfahrung im Sportunterricht. Das Ergebnis weist auch die Unklarheiten der Curricula nach. Daruberhinaus sind dort auch die unklaren Methoden bei der Feststellung der Korpererfahrungen zu ersehen. Solche Situationen sind auch in Japan bekannt. Aus den Versuchen in Deutschland konnen wir fur die Diskussion in Japan die folgenden zwei Punkte nennen: Uber die Situation in Japan laβt sich sagen, daβ hier Curricula fehlen, die vom Korper ausgehen. Auch gibt es kaum Diskussionen daruber, welche Korpererfahrung die Schuler machen sollen. Deswegen konnten wir aus den Versuchen in Deutschland hinreichend Hinweise fur die Erarbeitung eines fachdidaktischen Modells in Japan erhalten.
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  • Hai-peng Tang, Hideo Sasahara, zhong-qiu Ji
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 380-388
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was designed to analyze a world class and a Japanese middle-distance runners in women's 800 m finals of the international athletic games based on kinematic data, and to get insight into the basic middle-distance running technique. The performances of Qu yunxia, the world record holder of female 1,500 m and Kumiko Okamoto, the Japan record holder of female 800 m were video-taped with a video camera operating at 60 Hz with exposure time of 1/500 and 1/1000 s. Selected kinematic variables of the center of gravity (C.G), the segment endpoints and rotational energy of the lower limbs were investigated. Some differences of performance were found between Qu and Kumiko in running form. The C.G of Kumiko's up-down motion on vertical direction was about 14% larger; her deceleration in horizontal direction was 48% larger and her up-down motion of C.G of the feet was about 26% than Qu. The larger action of the foot breaking contact with the ground of Kumiko caused a greater loss of horizontal velocity of C.G. The larger flexion of the knee-joint of Kumiko consumes the greater rotational energy than Qu during the recovery phase.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 389-394
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 395-399
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 401-
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 402-403
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 404-414
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 415-426
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 427-
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages Cover19-
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages Cover20-
    Published: January 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
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