Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 42 , Issue 4
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages Cover13-
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages Cover14-
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages App4-
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages App5-_-3_
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages _-4_-
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Kimio Hoshino
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 205-214
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Psychological factors cannot be the sole determinants of good performance in sports, since motor performance of athletes is actualized through their bodily movements. Similarly, physical factors alone cannot meet all the requirements of good performance, since bodily movement ususually initiated and executed by an athlete's will. Therefore, athletes must solve the dual tasks of mind and body when attempting to improve their own motor skills and demonstrate their own motor abilities. Accordingly, DOUSA-HOU would be useful as a basis for the training of athletes. The purpose of DOUSA-HOU is to improve one's capability of controlling DOUSA, and thus to improve the way of experience. In this review, the aims and theory of DOUSA-HOU are outlined, and the possibility of applying DOUSA-HOU to athletes is discussed with reference to several examples. It is concluded that DOUSA-HOU is effective for improvement of both motor control and psychological modification in athletes. In addition, this review shows that the method is useful for both the mental and physical health of non-athletes, since the psychological condition is modified by changes of the way of DOUSA experience by improving the ability of JIKO control of DOUSA.
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  • Kunio Aoki, Koji Matsumoto
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 215-232
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present study was designed to clarify the determinant psychosocial factors important for adjustment to high school athletic clubs. The data were obtained through questionnaires distributed to 430 (293 males, 137 females) high school athletes, and multiple regression analysis was applied to the data. The main findings were as follows: 1) 2.1% (1.0% of males, 4.4% of females) of high school athletes showed moderate maladjustment to high school athletic clubs, 7.9% (7.2% of males, 9.5% of females) showed low maladjustment, 42.8% (40.0% of males, 48.9% of females) showed low adjustment, 39.3% (42.7% of males, 32.1% of females) showed moderate adjustment and 7.9% (9.2% of males, 5.1% of females) showed high adjustment. 2) As a result of multiple regression analysis using the stepwise method to clarify the determinant psychosocial factors of adjustment to high school athletic clubs in males, "athletic club change events・positive", "athletic club change events・negative", "trait anxiety", "achievement motives" and "social support in the athletic club" were found to be statistically significant (p &lt 0.05). The multiple correlation coefficient was R=0.585 (R^2=0.342). As to each standardized partial regression coefficient of factors, high positive change events in the athletic club, low negative change events in the athletic club, low trait anxiety, high achievement motives and better social support in the athletic club, respectively, promoted male athletes to adjust to high school athletic clubs. 3) As a result of multiple regression analysis using the stepwise method to clarify the determinant psychosocial factors in females, "life change events・negative", "trait anxiety" and "escapable copings skills in daily life" were found to be statistically significant (p &lt 0.05). The multiple correlation coefficient was R=0.322 (R^2=0.103). As to each standardized partial regression coefficient of factors, high negative change events in life, low trait anxiety, and low escapable coping skills in daily life, respectively, promoted female athletes to adjust to high school athletic clubs.
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  • Hunkyung Kim, Kiyoji Tanaka, Ryosuke Shigematsu, Milan Chang, Linda M. ...
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 233-245
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Japan and Korea are close neighbors geographically, and have similar cultures, but are quite different socio-economically. There have been few comparative studies of the two countries. The purpose of this study was to compare daily living physical activity (DLPA) and its components over a wide age range between Japanese and Korean elderly women. The subjects were 430 (176 Japanese and 254 Korean) elderly women, aged 65 to 84 years. Seventeen items related to DLPA were measured. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between the performance test scores and age were significant (P&lt0.05) for 17 items in Korean elderly wpmen and for 16 items (trunk flexion was not significant) in Japanese elderly women. The scores for 16 items in Korean elderly women and 15 items in Japanese elderly women were decreased markedly with aging, while changes in one item (Korea: foot-tapping in a sitting position) and two items (Japan: trunk flexion, sit &amp reach) were not significant. To identify potential dimensions of overall DLPA, principal component analysis was applied to a 17×17 correlation matrix. The first principal component was interpreted as fundamental DLPA. The results of the comparison clearly indicated that Korean elderly women had a lower fundamental DLPA level than Japanese elderly women in the 70-84 age group (P&lt0.05). Furthermore, to obtain a simple factor structure that would explain a large percentage of the total variance for these elderly women, extracted factors were rotated with a normal varimax criterion. DLPA was found to consist of 7 factors: locomotion (F1), agility (F2), flexibility (F3), balance (F4), muscle strength (F5), reaction time (F6) and leg endurance (F7). The results of comparison of the 7 factors between Japanese and Korean elderly women showed that Japanese elderly women performed significantly better on F1, F2, F4, F6 and F7 values, but were not different on F3 and F5. From these results, it can be concluded that advancing age significantly effects performance for all items in elderly women of both countries, and that the higher DLPA level reflects a lifestyle of more vigorous physical activity in Japanese elderly women.
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  • Akira Ito, Masaru Togashi
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 246-260
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present study was designed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic factors related to hurdle running velocity in comparison with sprint running. Movements during hurdle running (take-off, landing, and the 1st and 2nd steps after landing) and sprint running were filmed using a 16-mm movie camera, and the ground reaction forces of each step were recorded by a force platform. The joint torque and power of the hip, knee and ankle were computed from the film and force analysis data. The joint power curves were divided into eleven phases to calculate the mean power and mechanical work in each phase. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The horizontal velocity of the center of gravity decelerated in the first half and accelerated in the latter half of the foot contact period for all steps during hurdle running. As a result, the horizontal velocity of the center of gravity (=the amount of deceleration+acceleration) decelerated at take-off and accelerated at other steps during the foot contact period. 2) Although the amount of deceleration of the center of gravity in the first half of the foot contact period at take-off was positively correlated with hurdle running velocity (r=0.801, p&lt0.01), no correlations were observed at other steps during hurdle running and sprint running. 3) The amount of deceleration of the center of gravity in the first half of the foot contact period at take-off was correlated with the horizontal distance from the center of gravity to the toe at the moment of foot touch-down (r=0.844, p&lt0.0l). 4) The maximal velocity during the high knee movement phase of the take-off leg immediately before take-off was positively correlated with the hurdle running velocity (0.745, p&lt0.05). The mechanical work and the mean power during the high knee movement phase were also positively correlated with the hurdle running velocity (0.7l7, p&lt0.05; 0.812, p&lt0.05, respectively). These results suggest that performing high knee movement similar to that of sprint running reduces the deceleration in the first half of the foot contact period at take-off. 5) Faster hurdlers showed a higher swing-back velocity of the landing leg (r=0.848, p&lt0.01) and greater mechanical work in the hip extensors when lowering the leg (r=0.708, p&lt0.05). This suggests that lowering of the landing leg is an active movement due to the hip extensors, especially in faster hurdlers. 6) The knee joint angle at the beginning of the foot contact period upon landing and the minimum ankle joint angle during the foot contact period upon landing were positively correlated with the hurdle running velocity (r=0.758, p&lt0.05; r=0.667, p&lt0.05). These results suggest that faster hurdlers keep their center of gravity higher upon landing to reduce the impact force. This is consistent with the finding that faster hurdlers showed less mechanical work of the ankle extensors during the first half of the foot contact period upon landing(r=0.763, p&lt0.05). 7) The maximal swing-back angular velocity of the driving leg (represented by a line from the hip to the ankle) at all steps (take-off, landing, and the 1st and 2nd steps after landing) during hurdle running was positively correlated with the velocity (r=0.980, p&lt0.001; r=0.702, p&lt0.05; r=0.782, p&lt0.05; r=0.745, p&lt0.05, respectively). A similar result was obtained for sprint running (r=0.844, p&lt0.05). 8) The above findings suggest that faster hurdlers demonstrate similar hurdle running movements and muscle activities at take-off to those of sprint runners, and that their hurdle running movements and muscle activities at landing are more emphasized than those of sprint runners.
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  • Noboru Takamoto, Manabu Sakai, Hironori Sato, Takaki Izumi, Kimio Kush ...
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 261-269
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of differences in the specificity of habitual physical activities (during leisure time and work time) on physical fitness parameters were studied in middle-aged male workers. As physical fitness parameters, grip strength, vertical jump, side step and step test scores were measured. The effects of these physical activities on physical fitness parameters were evaluated by analysis of covariance (PC-SAS: GLM procedure) adjusting for several confounding factors such as age, body mass index, type of job, work in a shift system, and smoking and drinking habits. The main results can be summarized as follows: 1) Physical activity during leisure time was positively related to grip strength, vertical jump, side step and step test scores. 2) Physical activity during work time was positively related to grip strength. These results show that in middle-aged male workers, physical activity during leisure time has beneficial health-promoting effects through retaining and building up physical fitness.
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  • Masato Maeda, Haruo Nomura, Eiji Shamoto, Toshimichi Moriwaki
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 270-282
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present paper presents a new sensor for measuring six components of force and two components of deflection applied to a javelin. Two types of javelin differing in stiffness were thrown by three javelin throwers. The force and the deflection applied to the Javelin during throwing were measured to analyze the throwing motion and the dynamic behavior of the javelin. The major results obtained were as follows; The force in the axial direction of the javelin falls or remains unchanged temporary just before the value reaches its peak during release. The torque around the axial direction of the javelin tends to fall to aminimum value and then reach a peak. The change of force in the lateral direction of the javelin is roughly dominated by that in one direction. The deflection of the javelin during throwing is not one-directional as reciprocation, but multidirectional. In order to consider the force applied to the javelin and the deflection of the javelin form the viewpoint of the thrower, it is necessary to consider the rotation around the axial direction of the javelin as well. The value of deflection of the javelin is affected by its stiffiness. However appears that the stiffness dose not affect the values and patterns of force and torque applied to the javelin.
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  • Hideaki Soya
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 283-291
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Kazuhiko Kusudo
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 292-297
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Masahiro Kaneko
    Type: Article
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 298-305
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The energetics of human locomotion can be studied by calculating mechanical efliciency defined as the ratio of mechanical work performed and the net energy consumed. The efficiency values vary with several factors related not only to human machinery but also to methodological problems in determining either work or net energy cost. Using the method described by Fenn (1930), Cavagna and Kaneko (1977) reported the efficiency values for walking and running were 0.35-0.45 and 0.45-0.70 for level walking and running, respectively. One strong criticism is given to mechanical work determined as the sum of external work (Wext) to accelerate the body and internal work (Wint) performed by limbs around the body's center of mass, because of a possible energy transformation between Wext and Wint. The joint power method by Winter (1979) can be used as an appropriate alternative method. Another serious problem exists in determining energy cost for anaerobic metabolism. The most classical way of measuring oxygen debt (Hill, 1924) may lead to over-estimation, and the value of 1 kcal/kg/km obtained by extrapolation of aerobic metabolism (Margaria, 1963) might cause an under-estimation. There are many other elusive factors such as mechanical energy transfer, elastic energy utilization, the so called 'base-line' problem in metabolism and so on. Although several theories have been presented, it would be a more fruitful approach to obtain experimental data by applying a given method with assumptions. The data we obtained on energetics could contribute to a better understanding of human locomotion.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 306-309
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 310-319
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 320-328
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 329-
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages Cover15-
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
  • Type: Cover
    1997 Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages Cover16-
    Published: November 10, 1997
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
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