Analysis of teaching and the learning process is a research method that attempts to discover the basic principles of good teaching. In conducting this research, it is necessary to record the speech and behavior of teachers and pupils during the teaching and learning process. However, it is not easy to record teaching, particularly during physical education classes, as the teacher and pupils move across a large space. Moreover, as there are many factors involved in the process of teaching, it is not easy to analyze the direct causes of the phenomenon. Under such circumstances, a thesis that relates teaching to the learning process is often not evaluated as a scientific thesis. Furthermore, it is not unusual for scientific journals not to publish such theses because they are too long. In the hope that such circumstances can be changed, this article considers how to build a valuable record of the teaching process and category analysis for methodological documentation of phenomena in the class. First, the document must have a valuable content written in an easier and understandable form. It is recommendable to note the characteristic features of the class when describing the teaching process so that the first guidelines can be determined by category analysis. In any event, the key to better analysis of the teaching and learning process is highly dependent on the ability of the researcher to grasp the essence of the record or teaching methods in class.
This paper addresses the concept of the human body, especially the aspect of being wise, which is necessary for considering the ability of the human body from a phenomenological viewpoint. This paper tries to answes the following five questions in order to clarify what Wise Body means. (1)Why does being Wise of Body become a subject matter? (2)What are the characteristics of practice? To solve this question is to stresss the importance of the human body. (3)How can one become wise by practice? (4)What is the new concept of "acticept", on which being Wise of Body is based? (5)How is the human body structuralized as Wise Body? The conclusions of this paper are as follows. Being Wise of Body is the ability to solve problems in practical situations. In other words, it is the ability to do perform appropriately in a given situation and to do what is necessasy for further practice. Anybody has the capacity to make the body wise in practice, but in order to actually become wiser, everybody has to structuralize the human body more effectively for every situation, since the structure of the human body makes concrete judgments possible and furthermore enables accurate correspondence to accompany the judgments. Practical judgments originate from acticepts which are differentiated as perceptual Gestalt. The acticept is a compound word of action, percept and concept. It means an articulated percept which is always accompanied by an action, and it gains a function of concept when it is refined. Therefore many acticepts have to be held in the human body as practical wisdom, and the acticepts have to be articulatd in one's own bodily time-space as a criterion. Depending on the criterion we can relate ourselves to things or other persons, and can gain more effective acticepts for practice. New articulated and identified acticepts influence the structure of the human body. Wise Body is the same concept that allows the human body to hold a more developed structure. We need to possess a Wise Body in order to exert free will and to experience our environment.
The International Olympic Committee(IOC) made a decision to adopt women's track and field in the program of the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics in response to a call from the Federation Sportive Feminine Internationale(FSFI). This study examined the extent to which the FSFI was content with the IOC's decision immediately afterwards. The controversy over the adoption lasted for about 10 years, but the present investigation is limited only to the early stage. The documents used mainly for this study were the minutes of the IOC Session and the Executive Committee, the Official Bulletins of the IOC, and the correspondence between Alice Milliat, the president of the FSFI at the time, and Baillet Latour, the president of the IOC. The results of this study are summarized as follows: 1)According to previous studies, the FSFI negotiated primarily with the International Amateur Athletic Federation. However, the FSFI also carried out negotiations with the IOC. 2)Although Madame Milliat was requested to attend the Executive Committee of the IOC in 1926, she refused because she thought her presence would not change the resolution of the IOC. 3)In a letter, Mme Milliat asked Baillet Latour if it would be possible for the IOC to increase women's track and field events in the program for the Amsterdam Games and maintain the events already decided for the Games. However, Latour did not answer her favorably on those points. 4)After her refusal, Mme Milliat asked the IOC to support her proposal in a letter dated 1927. At the 25th IOC Session, however, no further discussion was heard on the matter because her letter referred to matters over which the IF and NOC had priority.
The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and safe submaximal graded cycling test(submaximal GCT)for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness by differentiated ratings of perceived exertion(overall RPE:RPEo, respiratory-metabolic RPE:RPEr, peripheral RPE:RPEp). Fifty-one young men, aged 18-26 years, were recruited as subjects. Mean(±SD)of VO_<2AT> and VO_2max, which were defined as criterion variables of cardiorespiratory fitness, were 27.1±6.8 and 50.3±7.0 ml/kg/min, respectively. During the submaximal GCT, the work rate(WR) was increased by 15 watts/min, and the scores of RPEo, RPEr and RPEp were recorded every one minute. Analyses of the data indicated that VO_<2AT> and VO_2max were significantly correlated with the WRs(r=0.33-0.69 and r=0.28-0.44, respectively)at which RPEo, RPEr and RPEp of 8 to 15 were first recorded(WR_<RPEox>, WR_<RPErx>, WR_<RPEpx>;x=8-15). It was therefore accepted that WR_<RPEox>, WR_<RPErx> and WR_<RPEpx> based on subjective perception during the submaximal GCT, could be useful for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, we attempted to develop equations for predicting VO_<2AT> and VO_2max. Multiple regression analyses by the stepwise method using WR_<RPEox>, WR_<RPErx>, WR_<RPEpx>, age, body mass and %body fat as the explanatory variables for predicting VO_<2AT> and VO_2max yielded the following equations. VO_<2AT>(ml/kg/min)=0.131 WR_<RPEp14>(watts/min)-0.314 body mass(kg)-0.260 %body fat(%)+33.9 (R=0.869, SEE=2.9 ml/kg/min) VO_<2max>(ml/kg/min)=0.095 WR_<RPEp15>(watts/min)-0.332 body mass(kg)-0.565 %body fat(%)-0.720 Age(yr)+83.1 (R=0.823, SEE=4.2 ml/kg/min) It was concluded that the submaximal GCT using RPEo, RPEr and RPEp was useful for evaluating cardiorespiratory fitness.