Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 43 , Issue 3-4
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages Cover9-
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages Cover10-
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (29K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages App3-
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages 137-149
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    1.Introduction: Well-learned voluntary movements known as daily life activities are usually performed utilizing prediction of oncoming situational changes and timing the control of muscle contraction on that basis, such as opening the mouth in time with movements of the fork or chopsticks when eating, or swinging the bat to hit the ball in a baseball game. In this paper I will briefly review previous investigations about the effects of spatial, temporal and intensity prediction upon human voluntary motor control. 2.Effects of spatial prediction on voluntary movements: Simple RT is shorter than Choice RT because motor centers for the predicted reaction movements can be preactivated. 3.Prediction of the load and muscle strength exertion: EMG-RT of reaction movements is longer when the load is expected to be heavy compared with a light load. 4.Temporal prediction and visual reaction time: RT is shorter when the time of the stimulus is predicted. 5.Prediction and eye movements: The eyes make a large saccade toward the position of the target motion change when its time is predicted. 6.Prediction and feinting: When the subject is feinted by unexpected perturbation of the stimulus regularity, correct motor commands cannot be issued until error motor commands are completely canceled. 7.The time necessary for switching motor commands: At least 50 ms is necessary to switch motor commands for the predicted reaction movements to the correct new one. 8.Effects of temporal prediction on the stretch reflex: Long-latency components of the stretch reflex are modulated according to task requirements when the time of stretch is predictable. 9.Prediction and postural control: Stretch reflexes in calf muscles are purposefully modified during the foreperiod so that the posture suitable for the reaction arm movement specified by the warning signal is maintained.
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  • Fumie Yamazaki, Shiro Nakagomi
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages 150-163
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This study was conducted to identify the eating patterns of athletes and then to examine body image characteristics in relation to these patterns. One hundred and seventy-one male athletes and 241 female athletes specializing in various sports completed a questionnaire concerning food intake patterns, use of satiation cues, current and the most ideal body size, and attitudes toward their body. Using cluster analysis, this study identified five types of eating pattems among the athletes. Of the five clusters, three represented mild forms of disordered eating and two could be considered to represent more regulated eating styles. The body image characteristics for each eating pattern can be summarized as follows: 1)The two regulated eating groups, well-controlled dieters and uninhibited eaters, had similar body image characteristics(e.g.no difference between current and ideal figure estimation for males, thinner figure estimation in current body size for females, and a more positive attitude toward the body for both sexes). 2)Severe restraint eaters and deregulated dieters among male athletes had a significantly thinner ideal image than the current body, whereas all female eating groups had a thinner ideal image. 3)Male and female impulsive eaters who had a tendency toward bulimia showed more negative attitudes to their body. Female impulsive eaters also tended to overestimate their current body size. These results indicate that a positive body image in athletes is strongly related to stable eating behavior regardless of sex or participating sport.
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  • Hatuki Shirasawa, Ryotaro Kime, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Masako Ogane, Hiroshi ...
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages 164-175
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to investigate muscle activities during sustained isometric contractions, electromyogram(EMG) patterns of the triceps surae muscles(medial gastrocnemius: MG, lateral gastrocnemius: LG, and soleus: SOL), which are synergists for plantar flexion, were examined. Experimental loads were set to obtain constant impulses at three different intensities(20% maximal voluntaly contraction(MVC), 40% MVC, and 60% MVC). Surface EMGs were recorded from the triceps surae muscles in five healthy male subjects. The EMGs were integrated every l s, and the integrated EMGs(iEMGs) were divided by the iEMG at the MVC, which was recorded before application of the experimental loads. The results can be summarized as follows: 1)Changes in relative iEMGs tended to decrease significantly with time, especially in the MG, not only to increase. 2)IEMGs increased significantly with time not only in the MG(so-called fatigable muscle), but also in the SOL(so-called fatigue-resistant muscle). 3)Complementary changes in EMG activities during sustained isometric contractions at 20% MVC were shown. These results suggest that the activity of the triceps surae muscles dose not always increase in each muscle during sustained isometric contraction at constant force. It can be assumed that control mechanisms in the central nervous system might play an important role in synergistic movement.
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  • Kiyotaka Matsuo, Mitsuo Narusawa, Shingo Muranaga, Kazuhiko Seki
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages 176-184
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has been shown that there is a lateral superiority in the circumference of the forearm among kendoist. However, the mechanism responsible for this laterality is still unknown. To examine the possibility that the myoelectrical activity of the forearm muscles affects the lateral superiority of forearm circumference, we recorded the myoelectrical activity from the forearm muscles during "suburi" movement in five subjects. Surface electrodes were used for recording from the superficial extensor and flexor muscles, and intramuscular electrodes were used for the supinator and pronator teres. Subsequently, the cross-sectional areas of each muscle were measured from magnetic resonance images of the right and left sides. The results indicated that there was a dominant difference in the characteristics of myoelectrical activity during "suburi" between the right and left forearms. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the laterality of forearm circumference could be affected by the laterality of myoelectrical activity of the forearm muscles during various movements in kendo.
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages 185-
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages 186-188
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages 189-205
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages 206-217
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages 218-
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages Cover11-
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (23K)
  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 43 Issue 3-4 Pages Cover12-
    Published: September 10, 1998
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (23K)
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