Over the past three decades, sport has developed into a global phenomenon. The increasing economic, cultural and political significance of sport has been recognized by governments throughout the world. Through a careful review of cross-national research literature on sport policies since the late 1960s, when the globalization of sport began to emerge, it is suggested that there were three developmental stages in this field. The first stage was the decade from the late 1960s, stimulated by the international development of the "sport for all" movement. The next stage was the decade of expansion of collaborative efforts among scholars encouraged by the foundation of the International Committee on Comparative Physical Education and Sport(ICCPES)and the adoption of the International Charter on Physical Education and Sport by UNESCO in 1978. The final stage was the decade that saw the political dislocation of the countries of Eastern Europe and the consolidation of the new European Community. During this period, most countrie were confronted increasingly by similar problems and issues such as drug abuse, spectator violence, the exploitation of young athletes and the access of television channels to major international sport events. A global network for sport information has developed to access data from the "gray literaure" in this field. Research methodology has also improved from a descripitive or encyclopedic approach to more dedicated adoption of research parameters and theoretical models of policy analysis in general.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the negotiations between the Tokugawa shogunate and the 'Sumo-kaisho'(an organization of sumo wrestlers and referees)regarding the arrangements for the 'Joran-sumo match in the Kansei era', which was beld in the presence of the Shogun in 1791, and to clarify the principles underlying the arguments for and against the appointment of Zenzaemon Yoshida XIX to the top of the sumo party concerned. The archives used for this study were selected from the National Diet Library, and were written down by the Tokugawa shogunate for the record. The 'Joran-sumo match in the Kansei era' was the first one held in the Edo period, so the Tokugawa shogunate was unsure how to hold this momentous event. Therefore he appointed the Sumo-kaisho to arrange the Joran-sumo match for him. The Sumo-kaisho had been organized under Zenzaemon Yoshida XIX, who had asserted that he had been the chief of the sumo party for generations all throughout Japan, and that the Sumo-kaisho had been his apprentice. Therefore, the Sumo-kaisho required that the Tokugawa shogunate appoint Zenzaemon Yoshida XIX to the 'sumo-shiki'(a sumo ceremony)for the Joran-sumo match since both the Sumo-kaisho and the Tokugawa shogunate recognized that the 'sumo-shiki' was essential for the Joran-sumo match. However the Tokugawa shogunate refused, and instead appointed Shonosuke Kimura VII, deciding that Zenzaemon Yoshida XIX was the chief only in name. Accordingly Shonosuke Kimura VII was made the head organizer of the Sumo-kaisho based on the fact that Shonosuke Kimura VII had had several experiences as substantial organizer, whereas Zenzaemon Yoshida XIX had no practical experience. Furthermore, his background was very suspicious. However, the Sumo-kaisho had been united behind Zenzaemon Yoshida XIX and his background, so if they allowed his background to questioned, it would show a lack of unity to the Sumo-kaisho's part. Therefore, the Sumo-kaisho insisted on appointing Zenzaemon Yoshida XIX to do the 'sumo-shiki'. In the end, the Tokugawa shogunate appointed Zenzaemon yoshida XIX to do the 'sumo-shiki' and his questionable background was overlooked. As a result, the 'Joran-sumo match in the Kansei era 'proved to be an important factor in the Sumo-kaisho's effort to gain authority as the leading organization in sumo.
A study was conducted to develop a scale for stressors experienced frequently by university athletes in daily and competitive life, and to examine the relationship between evaluation of the stressors and metnal health(stress response). In Study I, after selecting 66 items which university athletes identified as stressors in daily and competitive life, factor analysis showed that the main stressors were as follows:F1)human relationships in daily and competitive life, F2)competitive record, F3)expectation and pressure from others, F4)internal and social change in each individual, F5)content of club activity, and F6)economic condition and academic record. As a result, a daily and competitive stressor scale for university athletes, comprising 35 items, was developed. Psychometric analyses showed that the daily and competitive stressor scale for unviersity athletes had high reliability and validity. The results of ANOVA(independent variables:status in club, sex;dependent variables:6 subscales of the stressor scale)revealed that there were significant main effects and interactions in some subscales. In Study II, multiple regression analyses showed that a certain specific stressor tended to be strongly connected with a certain specific stress response. Furthermore, cluster anayses indicated that the evaluation pattern of stressors in university athletes could be classified into five main types:CL1)high score group on each factor, CL2)high score group on F2 and F4, CL3)high score group on F5 and F6, CL4)high score group on F3, and CL5)low score group on each factor. The results of MANOVA(independent variables:5 clusters;dependent variables:7 subscales of stress response scale)revealed that the expression pattern of stress response in university athletes also differed according to the stressor evaluation pattern. Finally, future research needs and implications for daily and competitive stressors and health-related problems in university athletes are discussed.
The present study was designed to investigate the kinematic factors related to sprint running velocity. The subjects were 71 sprinters(49 males and 22 females)who ranged from world class to collegiate level. Movements were recorded around the 60-m point from the start line during a 100-m race(during official races including world championships in athletics, or under experimental conditions)using 16-mm movie or video cameras. The official best time during recording of the movements was 9.86. The correlation coefficients between kinematic data(see Fig.1)and sprint running velocity were calculated for three groups(male, female, and all sprinters). Step length and step length index(step length/body height to exclude the effects of body height)were correlated positively and significantly with sprint running velocity for all groups(male, female, and all sprinter). Step frequency and step frequency index[step frequency・(body height/gravitational acceleration)^<1/2>to exclude the effects of body height]were correlated positively and significantly with sprint running velocity for all groups except male sprinters with regard to step frequency. With regard to leg swing, maximal thigh angle and maximal leg angle showed no significant correlation with sprint running velocity, but the minimal knee angle showed a singificant negative correlation with sprint running velocity for both male and all sprinters. These results suggest that the purpose of high knee drills generally carried out during training needs to be reconsidered. The maximal leg touch down velocity showed a significant positive correlation with sprint running velocity for both female and all sprinters. This probably means that the leg touch down velocity acts to reduce the deceleration at the moment of foot contact and to accelerate the subsequent leg swing back velocity during the foot contact phase. As for the support leg, the maximal leg swing velocity showed a significant positive correlation with sprint running velocity for all groups. Although the maximal hip extension velocity during the foot contact phase was correlated positively and significantly with sprint running velocity for male sprinters, the maximal knee and ankle extension velocity showed a significant negative correlation with sprint running velocity for female and all sprinters. These results suggest that the knee should not be extended to transfer the hip extension velocity effectively to the leg swing velocity during the foot contact period. This was borne out by the fact that the top sprinters entered in the present study hardly extended the knee of the driving leg during the foot contact phase.
Im Kunstturnen muβ man bestimmte Grundtechniken beherschen, um die heutigen hochentwikcelten Elemente uberhaupt zu erreichen. Die erstrebte Bewegungstechinik sollte selbstverstandlich die neueste und erfolgreichste sein. Denn niemand kann eine optimale Leistung vollbringen, wenn er nicht weiβ, welcher Bewegungsablauf der beste ist und stattdessen lediglic motorisches Wiederholungstraining(Drilltraining)durchfuhrt. Diese Untersuchung hat den Zweck, die neuesten Erkenntnisse fur Trainingsrichtlinien aus der erfolgreichsten Techniken beim Stutzschwung vorwarts zu gewinnen, und zwar durch die Analyse der Ausfuhrungen von den weltbesten Turnern. Man kann sagen, daβ der chinesische Turner HUANG LI PING, der 1994 den Weltmeistertitel am Barren gewann, in bezug auf den Stuzschwung am Barren der Weltbeste ist. Er zeigte besonders den "Morisue(Doppelsalto rw. in den Oberarmhang)" in ausgezeichneter Weise, namlich in Hohe und Drehgeschwindigkeit des Saltos, und hat dabei zum ersten Mal in der Welt den gebuckten Morisue vorgefuhrt. Hier wollen wir die Bewegungsmerkmale der Technik von HUANG charakterisieren, durch den Vergleich zum Vorgehen anderer Turner. Turner-A hat den Adschwung aus dem Handstand in gegensatzlicher Weise ausgefuhrt und wird hier zum Vergleich gewahlt. Die Materialien fur diese Betrachtung stammen von Videos der 25. Weltmeisterschaften 1995 in Sabae, Japan. Der Gegenstand der Analyse sind alle 21 Ausfuhrungen des Elements "Morisue", die von den Turnern der 12 besten Nationen geturnt wurden. Den groβte Unterschied zwischen HUANG und Turner-A ist die Abschwungsweise aus dem Handstand. HUANG beginnt das Adschwingen aus dem geradlinigen Handstand mit der Verlagerung des ganzen korpers nach hinten, das heiβt es befinden sich die Schultern und Fuβe hinter der Senkrechten des Griffpunktes. Eine derartig groβe Verschiebung des ganzen korpers aus dem Handstand ist wahrscheinlich fur die meisten Turner sehr ungewohnlich. Hinzu kommt, daβ der Huftwinkel mit dem Hohlkreuz immer mehr verringert wird, je nach Absinken des Korpers bis zur horizontalen Korperlage. Bei Turner-A fangt das Abschwingen mit der Verschiebung lediglich der Fuβe nach hinten an, wahrend die Schultern in der Position des Handstandes bleiben. Von der leichten Hohlkreuzhaltung im Handstand wechselt die Koperhaltung zu einer geraden Linie. Die Bewegungsweise von HUANG ist vermutlich eine Moglichkeit der neuen Bewegungstechnik des Stuzvorschwunges.
Recently, in addition to a diet which should reflect the day-to day needs of training sessions, a proper environment for training and recovery as well as proper timing of meals are recognized as essential for improvement of athletic performance. Hence in order to improve their athletic performance, an increasing number of elite athletes are adopting a lifestyle which emphasizes a proper enviroment for training and recovery. This report describes the successful lifestyle adopted by a female marathon runner who won a gold medal at the IAAF World Championships in Athens in August 1997. During the period of intensive training, meals were provided promptly after the end of each training session to facilitate replenishment of nutrients, and an extended rest period enhanced recovery from the intense training. In the diet, careful consideration was given to total energy, the fraction of energy derived from each of the three main energy sources(fat, carbohydrate, and protein), and proper intake of vitamins and minerales. In addition, each meal was prepared in order to provide an appropriate nutritional content to aid post-training recovery as well as to prepare for future training sessions. In other words, instead of average nutritional(including energy)requirements, day-to-day requirements were used to determine the menu for each meal. In this case study, it was found that an athletic lifestyle characterized by a proper environment for training and recovery as well as a proper diet which reflects the training menu, was conductive to improvement of athletic performance.