Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 44 , Issue 6
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages Cover21-
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (386K)
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages Cover22-
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (386K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages App7-
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (185K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages App8-
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1206K)
  • Tomihiko Sato
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 483-492
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To give the sciences on physical education an assured status, it is premised on a conceptual grasp of physical education in itself. But physical education has been confused with sport conceptually. This means it cannot be regarded as scientifically estab1ished. As the conceptual base of physical education is derived from 'education', its categorical basis consists in relation', whereas a genus of sport is 'culture' that has a categorical basis of 'substance'. They are the disparate concept that cannot have an overlap each other. Namely conceptual substitution physical education for sport is impossible. For establishment of specialty as science, first of all, our distinctive comprehension of these concepts will be required. Although physical educat1on researchers mix up practical knowing (phronesis) with theoretical knowledge frequently, it is crucial to differentiate clearly between the two matters also. Empirical knowing is of significance for practice but doesn't automatically mean to be researches. Scientific work obviously requires inter-subjectively testable objectivity and falsifiability (Popper). The origins of actual influences in scientific knowledge are based on a rational explanation of fact and prediction of unforeknown fact (Carnap). Therefore the sciences on physical education too must pursue not a mere object but the objectivity that everyone recognizes the validity of an argument. Academizing our studies, the subjects of inquiry for physical education must be argued not only generally and logically, but also falsifiably. Such learned accomplishments will be able to obtain the above objectivity as requirement for research. Then our sciences will acquire social significance and recognition from that its scientific force arises.
    Download PDF (1288K)
  • Shoji Miyamoto, Toshihiro Ishiko, Torao Kitamura, Koichiro Oshikawa
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 493-499
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study was conducted to examine the effect of relatively low-impact exercise on declining bone mineral density, which is a cause of fractures in aged women. Twelve female participants aged 64-76 years before training began to practice gateball for 100-150 min every day, 4-6 days a week for four years. A control group comprised six women aged 66-75 years before training. Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition and bone mineral density (BMD). There were significant differences in BMD (femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter, and lumbar vertebra) before training between the gateball group and the control group. BMD in the control group was below the threshold for increased danger of femoral neck fracture. The rate of change in BMD (femoral neck, lumbar vertebra) in the training group (-0.8% per year, -0.8% per year) was smaller than that in the control group (-1.2% per year, -1.1% per year), and each respective difference was significant, A significant increase was found in the rate of change in lean tissue mass in the training group (0.6% per year). Therefore regular low-impact exercise (gateball) can play an important role in preventing bone fracture in elderly women.
    Download PDF (731K)
  • Hunkyung Kim, Kiyoji Tanaka, Hitoshi Amagai, Takao Suzuki
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 500-509
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Age-related changes in body composition, namely a decrease in fat-free mass (FFM) and bone mineral content (BMC) and a reciprocal increase in fat mass, are often observed in general populations. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) makes it possible to analyze BMC, bone-free lean tissue mass (LTM), and fat mass more precisely and easily. To examine the changes in body composition with advancing age, percent body fat (%fat), BMC, LTM, and fat mass were measured in 79 adult men (48.8±19.9yr) and 134 adult women (50.8±19.3yr) using DXA (Lunar DPX-L). The subjects were divided into 7 subgroups according to chronological age. The highest %fat was 22.3±5.4% (70-79yr) in men, and 32.4±7.1% (60-69yr) in women. The mean peak BMC was observed at the age of 20-29 years in both men and women, being 3.3±0.5 kg and 2.6±0.3 kg respectively. Fat mass and %fat increased significantly (P<0.05) from age 20 (21.7±3.9%) to age 60(32.4±7.1%), and then decreased in women. Fat mass and %fat gradually increased (P<0.05) with advancing age, but not to a significant extent in men. BMC and LTM decreased significantly with advancing age in both sexes. The cumulative loss of mean BMC was greater in women than in men, but LTM showed on inverse trend. Characteristic changes in body composition associated with age in the region of the arms, legs and trunk varied considerably among body components. The mean fat mass of the arms and trunk was significantly larger at age 50-60 than at age 20 in women. The mean LTM of the legs decreased significantly with advancing age, but not in the arms and trunk. The fat mass and LTM of the trunk were higher than those of the arms and legs. However, BMC of the legs was higher than that of the trunk and arms in men, but similar in women. These results suggest that age-and gender-related differences in body components do exist in Japanese men and women.
    Download PDF (1041K)
  • Sungjin Yoon, Ohyama Keigo Byun, Hidetaka Okada, Kaoru Takamatsu
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 510-521
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of gastrocnemius muscle stiffness on achilles tendon force in rebound jumps on slanted contact surfaces. Five trained college jumpers and throwers, and six active males executed five continuous repetition rebound jumps under three surface gradient conditions. The surface gradients were 8 degrees uphill type (U8), 8 degrees downhill type (D8), and level type (L) conditions. Force plate and limb position data were recorded simultaneously during all jumps. The changes in length of the achilles tendon (L_<AT>), m. gastrocnemius (L_<GAS>) and gastrocnemius muscle-achilles tendon complex (L_<MTC>) during the eccentric phase were calculated according to the mode1 of Voigt et al. (1995) and Grieve et al. (1978). The main results were as follows; 1. Jumping height in U8 and L was higher than in D8. There was also a tendency for a higher achilles tendon force at the midpoint (ATF_<MID>) in U8. On the other hand, in U8 and D8, L_<MTC> was lower, and L_<AT>/L_<GAS> was higher than in L. 2. There was significant positive correlations between the ground reaction force at the midpoint (GRF_<MID>) and jumping height, and ATF_<MID> and jumping height in U8, D8 and L. 3. There were significant positive correlations between GRF_<MID> and ATF_<MID>, and L_<AT>/L_<GAS> and ATF_<MID> in U8 and L. However, L_lt:MTC> and ATF_<MID> showed a significant negative correlation. These results indicate that the stretch length of the gastrocnemius muscle-achilles tendon complex is lower, and ATF_<MID> higher under uphill-type conditions than under level conditions because L_<AT/L_<GAS> becomes higher as gastrocnemius muscle stiffness increases.
    Download PDF (1157K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 522-524
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (210K)
  • Type: Index
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 525-528
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (144K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 529-
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (645K)
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages Cover23-
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (488K)
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages Cover24-
    Published: November 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (488K)
feedback
Top