Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 44 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (44K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages App3-
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Harumi Morishita
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 67-76
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The first part of this paper summaarizes the various studies conducted on the motor development of infants, and the remaining sectionss covers our studies on the development of locomotive behavior as larval adaptation in early childhood from aspects of motor ability, attachment and locomotive spatial schemes derived from locomotive tracks. The subjects, 10-41 months old, entered a playroom (11×13 m) with their mother, and video recording was done while the position coodinates (X. Y) were detected through a supersonic transmitter carried on the child'back. Each child was observed for about 30 min, one to three times a day. In the first 30 min (first session) the mother sat in a corner of the room and child was left to play freely. In the second and third sessions, the conditions were changed, such as having other persons in the room. Based on the locomotive range, velocity, distance and speed, motor development could be divided into three stages: I, quadrupedal to bipedal transition (10-17 mo), II, bipedal development (17-29 mo), and III, bipedal maturity (29-41 mo). Stage I was characterized by attachment behavior such as staying for long periods in the vicinity of the mother (First Base) and The locomotive distance from FB was within 5 meters. Stage II showed increased motor ability with age. The locomotive pattern was predominantly running mostly to and from the mother (FB) and a toy box (SB), then another toy box (TB) or virious fixtures (FoB) and the mother functions as a resting place, being a landmark of locomotion rather than a subject of attachment. In Stage III, more frequent approaches were made to strangers or the furthest toy box, and the period of staying and playing there was extended with less loconxotion.
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  • Yuko Kusaka
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 77-89
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    An attenpt was made to examine the "mind and body" transformation mechanism in elderly peopie using an "Onsen" bath, based on Yuasa's theory of mind and body. First, investigations into the actual conditions of elderly people in an Onsen were conducted, using various methods such as participant observations, records of conversations, interviews, questionnaires, and analyses of notes and life-history. Second, the theoretical significance of our findings was considered in relation to Yuasa's theory of three circuit systems. As a result, the following points were clarified: 1) Welfare (health/spa) centers for elderly people, bath houses and travel to Onsens satisfy the needs for health, involvement with friends, and fun of elderly people. The mind and body of elderly people using these Onsens relate mainly to Yuasa's first mind and body (information) system, that is the "external world sense-activity circuit system". 2) The "Onsen habit" of elderly people who live in Onsen areas is deeply internalized as a subconscious level, and use of the Onsen plays an important role in their daily living activities and in life itself. This attitude of mind and body is related mainly to the second information circuit system, i.e. "somesthesis" and "coenesthesis". 3) The sympathetic conformity with Onsen use, and the nature valued by "Toji" (hot spring cure) elderly people are related mainly to the deepest level of mind and body, i.e. the third information circuit system of the "emotion-instinct". This attitude enhances the function of the autonomic nervous system and stimulates their natural healing power through the system. 4) There is an individualistic value related directly to the mind and body of elderly people in the sensation of nature around an Onsen, i.e. the value of "life" or "longevity". This is the most important basic factor for the "raison de vinre" of elderly persons, and the source of that feeling.
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  • Tomomi Hosoda, Takashi Sugihara
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 90-99
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    A study was conducted to investigate the influence of dispositional goal orientation and perceived competence on motivation in physical education, according to Dweck's model. The dispositional goal orientation was composed of task orientaion and ego orientation. The subjects were 958 junior high school students. They were given questionnaires on dispositional goal orientation, perceived competence and motivation, which evaluated the data on the basis of behavioral intensity and persistence, and intrinsic motivation. The subjects were divided into four groups based on the median of the task and ego orientation scores; the high task/low ego group was the task orientation group, and the high ego/low task group was the ego orientaion group. The data were analyzed by 2 (dispositional goal orientation)×2 (perceived competence)×2 (sex) ANOVA, and the main results were as follows: 1) With regard to behavioral inatensity and persistence, task orientation students scored significantly higher than ego orientation students, high perceived competence students scored significantly higher than low perceived competence students, and males scored significantly higher than females. However, dispositional goal orientation×perceived competence interaction showed no significant effects on behavioral intensity and persistence. 2) With regard to intrinsic motivation, task orientation students scored significantly higher than ego orientation students, high perceived competence students scored significantly higher than low perceived competence students, and males scored significantly higher than females. Also, dispositional goal orientation×perceived competence interaction showed significant effects on intrinsic motivation. This interaction showed that the effect of perceived competence was significantly greater when students had ego orientation rather than task orientation. Students with ego orientation, and low perceived competence showed the lowest intrinsic motivation. These results did not support Dweck's model.
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  • Satoshi Shibuya, Masanobu Ito
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 100-111
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Recent studies have shown that when different motor tasks are practiced in the same practice session, high contextual interference (random practice) can lead to more effective learning than low contextual interference (blocked practice), as measured by a retention test. In these studies, however, augmented feedback was given after each trial. There is some evidence showing that summary feedback can enhance motor learning. Thus, the benefits of contextual interference may be dependent on summary feedback. The purpose of the present study was to examine the interaction of contextual interferenee and summary feedback in motor learning. Seventy-two subjects learned three movement patterns that had different relative timing (requiring different generalized motor programs) and different absolute timing (requiring different paramctters) in either blocked or random order. There were three summary feedback conditions: feedback after every trial (SUM 1); summary feedback after each block of 3 trials (SUM 3); summary feedback after each block of 5 trials (SUM 5). Retention was measured after a 10-min and one-clay delay under blocked and random sequences of presentation. Analysis of acquisition performance showed that all groups improved with practice, with a tendency for the random practice groups to produce less effective performance than the blocked practice groups. Analysis of retention performance, however, revealed a strong advantage for the random practice group under the SUM 3 condition compared with any of the other groups. These findings suggest that random practice can lead to more effective learning when augmented feedback is summarized than when augmented feedback is given after every trial, but that there is an optiumum number of trials to be summarized.
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  • Shinich Demura, Jinzaburo Matsuzawa, Youhei Noda, Masaki Minami, Fumio ...
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 112-127
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An investigation was conducted to determine the characteristics of 133 activities of daily living (ADLs) in 1308 elderly people aged 60-88 years, focusing on difficulty of ADL achievement, changes with age, and sex differences. The major findings were as follows: 1) High-difficulty activities included loconaotion, stability, and posture-change systems that belonged mainly to domains II (activities related tcc daily life) and III (creative activities). The achievement of these ADLs was considerably burdensome because they demand physical exertion such as static strength and muscular endurance of the upper limbs and trunk, balance, and flexibility. On the other hand, low-difficulty activities included locomotion and manipulation systems that belonged to domains I (fundamental life activities) and II, which had been performed almost every day and habitually since childhood. 2) Achievement rates for high-difficulty activities, including locomotion, stability, and posture-change systems of domains II and III, were higher in males than in females. Sex differences in physicat fitness were reflected in these achievements. Experience and habit of some ADLs in adolescence and adulthood might have influenced their achievement, and judgment of achievement possibility. Sex differences were not observed in the achievement of everyday and habitual ADLs, which did not require severe physical exertion. 3) The achievement of most activities including locomotion, stability, manipulation, and posture-change systems decreased with age irn both sexes. High-difficulty activities of locomotion and on program and manipulation systems showed a greater decrease with age, suggesting that a decrease in muscular strength and balance is related to These achievements. Some activities demonstrated a marked decrease in achievement from 75 years of age or a decrease at each age-level. Activities that differed with regard to decrease of achievement in both sexes were divided into two groups: those with high difficulty in the locomotion system and those with low difficulty in the manipulation system of the upper limbs.
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  • Hideo Kaga
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 128-132
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Alex F. Roche
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 133-151
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A major focus of the University of Melbourne Child Growth Study and the Fels Longitudinal Study was on the growth and maturation of children. These studies differed in planning, design, logistics and staffing, but each led to exciting analytic opportunities that required longitudinal data. In both studies, there were few publications in the early years, the retention of participants was a major concern, and a balance had to be maintained among the efforts given to the collection, management, and analysis of data. More such studies are needed that focus on particular population groups and topic areas. These news studies should utilize lessons from the past to maximize future success.
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  • Gikei Hirohashi
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 152-157
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 159-223
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 224-
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (53K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 225-
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: March 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
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