Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 44 , Issue 5
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages Cover17-
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages Cover18-
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (382K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages App6-
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Miharu Miyamura
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages 395-410
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    When exercise starts, various cardiorespiratory adjustments take place for accommodating the greatly increased metabolic requirements. It is well known that the transition from rest to light or moderate intensity exercise is typically accompanied by an abrupt step-1ike increment in ventilation at the first exercise breath. This rapid increment of ventilation at the onset of exercise (phase I) is observed during not only voluntary and passive exercise, but also during electrically induced muscle contraction. A rapid response in ventilation (phase I) may be at least useful for preventing oxygen deficiency and for increasing alveolar ventilation, oxygen tension, and oxygen uptake even if it is a small quantity. Although mechanisms of phase I have extensively been explored by many investigators, they have still remained obscure until now. At present, the causal factors of phase I are classified as central (descending) and peripheral (ascending) neurogenic stimulus, or as both. In the awake condition, abrupt ventilatory increment immediately after voluntary and passive exercise in man could be attributed to the drives from the central command including cortical and hypothalamic activities as well as some peripheral afferent information mainly through group III and IV fibers. However, further investigation to clarify many unsolved problems regarding neurogenic mechanisms of phase I should be advanced in future.
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  • Atsushi Kobayashi
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages 411-420
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Norie Takada was an authority in the practical study of teaching in physical education. He worked for 26 years at an elementary school, and then worked at the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture and two universities. His approach was initially to observe and note the methods used by successful teachers. He then verified the efficiency of his approach by adopting it in his own teaching, and formulated the principles that create "good physical education teaching". He continued his studies for about 40 years in this way, and published many articles about his findings. However, his studies have not been highly evaluated as academic achievements, and his style of writing has been regarded as essay-like. However, the present author considers that several of his published writings can indeed be looked upon as academically valuable, and these are leading works in the study of physical education teaching. This article attempts to verify this evaluation by analyzing the books written by Takada.
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  • Wangtaik Han
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages 421-433
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    I studied the development of the concept of physical education in Korea (1876-1910) in comparison with Japan (1868-1915). During these periods, many people became aware of the need for physical health, and exercise for relaxation and hygiene. This led to the concept of physical education, and after a few years, the term "Physica1 Education" was coined. The process by which the concept of physical education developed in Korea (1876-1910) in comparison with Japan (1868-1915) was as follows: 1) "Yojo(養生)", which means physical education, appeared in Japan in 1873, while "Yang Sung(養生)" was first advocated by Park Younghyo, who had come to Japan as a political refugee in 1888. 2) "Shintai Kyoiku(身体教育)", which simply expresses the concept of physical education, appeared in 1875. This was followed in 1873 by "Karada no oshie(体の教)", which represents "Education for the Body", and then by "Shinkyo(身教)" in 1875. Later," Karada no kyoiku(体の教育)" appeared in 1878, and "Ikutai(育体)" in 1878. However there was no shortening process of "Physica1 Education" in Korea. Instead the term "Supsang(摂生)", which expresses the concept of physical education, and "Cheyang(体養)", which expresses three forms of training ideology, i.e. training for morality, body and wisdom, appeared in Korea in 1895 and 1905, respectively. 3) Fina11y the term "Physical Education", shortened from "The Education Physical" appeared in Japan in 1876, and the term was popularized after the foundation of the "taiso denshusho(体操伝習所)" gymnasium. The term "Physical Education" was first introduced by the Japanese in Korea in 1895. In addition, in Japan physical education by means of exercise first appeared in 1879, while in Korea physical education was introduced in 1897 by people who had been studying in Japan. Physical education by means of exercise was introduced by Korea in 1900. In this way, the first concept of physical education in Korea was considered to be education for physical training through exercise. Meanwhile, the concept of physical education, meaning education for the body and spirit through exercise, appeared in Japan in 1884, whereas it did not appear in Korea until 1906. There after, physical education meaning sports or exercise itself appeared in Japan in 1892, but not unti1 1906 in Korea. 4) In Japan "The Education for Physical(身体教育)", emphasizing physical education, appeared in 1881 and 1886, while in Korea this was introduced by a Korean studying in Japan in Korean studying in Japan in Korea in 1908. As mentioned above, the development of the concept of "Physical Education" in Korea (1876-1910) did not show any shortening process from "The Education for Physical". In addition, the periods of emergence of "Physical Education" were different from each other because "Physical Education" in Korea was initially imported by Japanese, and even "The Education for Physical" was introduced by people studying in Japan. Accordingly the concept of "Physical Education" meaning "The Education for Physical" through exercise and sanitation, meaning education of the body and spirit through exercise, and sports or exercise itself, appeared in Korea 28 years later than in Japan. Also in Korea "The Education for Physical" appeared after "Physical Education" had been founded. Thus the process was opposite to that in Japan. In conclusion, although the process showed a different order, the development of "Physical Education" in Korea (1876-1910) was influenced by that in Japan (1868-1915).
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  • Masaki Nakagaichi, Yoichi Nakamura, Kiyoji Tanaka
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages 434-444
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Recently, for estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness, the authors have developed a useful 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test (STWT) in which the intensity is regulated by ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the STWT for estimation of training-induced changes in cardiorespiratory fitness. The subjects were 9 obese women aged 42.0±4.5 yr, who participated in our exercise program, which was based on 75 min of step exercise 3 times a week for a period of 4 months. All subjects were asked to walk for 12 min at an intensity corresponding to 13 on the Borg scale of RPE, and their VO_<2peak> and VO_<2AT> were measured on the treadmi11 by means of a graded exercise test (GXT). The STWT and the GXT were readministered 4 months after completion of the exercise program. The correlations of 12-min walk distance with VO_<2peak> or V0_<2AT> were found to be statistica11y significant (r=0.76 and 0.70, respectively) when pre-and post-training data were pooled and analyzed. The standard error of estimation (SEE) of the linear regression equation for estimating VO_<2peak> and VO_<2AT> from the 12-min walk distance were 3.01ml/kg/min and l.85ml/kg/min, respectively, both of which were relatively low. After the 4-month exercise program, the coefficient of correlation between the changes in 12-min walk distance and those in VO_<2AT> was statistica11y significant (r=0.78). From heart rate (HR) data measured during the STWT and the GXT, the %HR_<peak> of the STWT was not significantly different from the %HR_<peak> corresponding to RPE13 during the GXT before and after exercise training. From this limited sample size, it was concluded that the STWT at a self-selected intensity intended to correspond to RPE13 is a valid method for estimating changes in the cardiorespiratory fitness of obese women.
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  • Banjou Sasaki
    Type: Article
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages 445-456
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    A study was conducted to investigate how students cope with their inabillty to fulfill assignments in physical education classes and what their responses are to the resulting stress. I distributed questionnaires to 1,163 male and female junior high school students, inquiring about their affective component against exercises and sports, their psychological stress level, their pattern of coping with inability, and trends in their psychological stress responses during physical education classes. The data obtained were analyzed using path analysis to clarify the dependence of the psychological factors. The following results were obtained: 1) Students who showed high levels of stress due to their own inabi1ity tended to avoid facing up to problems by resigning or cutting corners. When they took avoidance measures, they showed stronger psychological stress responses. Furthermore, their calm attitude and behavior was closely related to their psychological stress responses. On the other hand, students who tries to face their problems with a positive attitude however high their stress level, showed a diminished psychological stress response. 2) Students who did not like physical education or exercise tended to take measures of avoidance and showed strong psychological stress responses. On the other hand, among the students who liked physical education or exercise, some did not show psychological stress responses because of their positive attitude. However, there were also others who did show marked psychological stress responses because of their calm attitude and behavior.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages 457-461
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages 462-469
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages 470-475
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages 476-
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages Cover19-
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (489K)
  • Type: Cover
    1999 Volume 44 Issue 5 Pages Cover20-
    Published: September 10, 1999
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (489K)
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