The present study examined mental health promotion for elderly persons participating in physical fitness programs, and related factors. The subjects were 219 elderly persons (67 males, 152 females) participating in physical fitness programs. The results were as follows : 1) By participating in physical fitness programs and carrying out physical activity for 9 months, the "impulsiveness" and "nervousness" scales showed significant mental health promotion in elderly men. In elderly women participating in physical fitness programs, "impulsiveness", "mental instability", "depressiveness" and "nervousness" scales showed significant mental health promotion. 2) As a result of multiple regression analysis using the stepwise method to clarify the factors related to mental health promotion in elderly men participating in physical fitness programs, "frequency of exercise", "self-esteem", "negative social support from friends" and "THI・physical health promotion" were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). The multiple correlation coefficient was R=0.719 (R^2=0.517).Judging from each standardized partial regression coefficient of factors, higher exercise frequency, lower self-esteem, less negative social support from frierds and higher THI・physical health promotion, each encouraged elderly men to improve their mental health. 3) As a result of multiple regression analysis using the stepwise method to clarify the factors related to mental health promotion in women, "age", "morbidity of chronic disease", "ADL", "frequency of exercise", "self-esteem", "positive social support from friend's" and "negative social support from friends" were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). The multiple correlation coefficient was R=0.500 (R^2=0.250).Judging from each standardized partial regression coefficient of factors, younger age, high morbidity of chronic disease, normal ADL, higher exercise frequency, low self-esteem, high positive social support and low negative social support from triends, each promoted elderly women to improve their mental health.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether intraindividual variability in run time to exhaustion is related to Vo_2max, HRmax, vVT (running velocity at VT), vVo_2max (running velocity at Vo_2max), and running economy (Vo_2 at 268 m・min^-1 running velocity). The subjects were nine trained university runners. An 8-13 repeated incremental treadmill test (test 1) and another maximal treadmill running test at v Vo_2max to measure the tLIM (run time to exhaustion) at Vo_2max (test 2) were given to each subject at the same time and the same day of the week over 8-13 weeks. These treadmill running tests (tests 1 and 2) were performed at constant temperature (20±0.5℃) and humidity (50±2%) conditions and the same analyzers were used for measuring the Vo_2 (test 1). The mean coefficient of variation (CV) of each subject in run time to exhausion, Vo_2max (ml・kg^1・min^1), HRmax, vVT, vVo_2max, running economy and tLIM at Vo_2max were within the ranges 3.1-6.1%, 4.0-7.6%, 1.0-3.3%, 2.2-5.6%, 1.5-3.5%, 3.6-7.1%, 9.5-32.7%, respectively. It was difficult to explain an intraindividual variability in run time to exhaustion by the variation in Vo_2max, vVT and running economy, except in one subject. Therefore, it is speculated that intraindividual variability in run time to exhaustion in the 8 subjects might have been due to daily changes in peripheral fatigue of the legs, psychological factors (duration of tension and motivation), and anaerobic capacity.
Using long-jump exercise as a medium, we examined differences in teachers' verbal interaction by comparing classes with high scores (abbr. HSC group) with those showing low scores (abbr. LSC group). Using Kobayashi's Physical Education Inventory, teachers'attitudes were measured twice for fifth and sixth graders, constituting seven classes in various elementary shools, in September and November 1996. After the first measurement, all of the teachers'spoken words and actions were recorded by VTR in four lessons (2, 5, 8 and 11 sessions) as the core of the fourth teaching stage in each of the seven classes. The teaching plan in all the classes was the same. All elements of the teacher's speech and behavior were classified into parts of speech as minimum element sentences, and their frequencies were counted in each 45-minute session (abbr.Analyzed Parts Of Speech, AS). AS were organized by the following two methods. One used the frequencies of ordinary parts of speech in Japanese (for example, Meishi, Doshi, Keiyoshi, Fukushi, Zyoshi, Kandoshi, Keiyodoshi, etc.). Using results obtained by Takahashi et al.and Umeno et al., the other method employed the frequencies of typical parts of speech that were connected with the teacher's behavior used for learning development (attitude scores). Namely, the words of Meishi were classified into five types (spacing, timing and physical parts of words, technical terms related to long-jump and personal names). The words of Keiyoshi were divided into two types (positive-negative words and binominally oppositional words). The words of Fukushi were also divided into two types (interrogative words and spacing or timing words). The results obtained were as follows : 1) The frequencies of ordinary parts of speech in the HSC group had significantly higher values (P<5%) than those in the LSC group for eight parts of speech except Kandoshi and Keiyodoshi. The above differences were especially significant (P<1%) for Fukushi and Zyoshi words. 2) For the typical parts of speech, the frequencies of Meishi (technical terms and timing words) and Fukushi (interrogative words and spacing or timing words) in the HSC group had significantly higher values (P<1%) than those in the LSC group. The frequency of Keiyoshi (binominally oppositional words) also showed a similar tendency (P<5%). It was considered that these words had a corrective feedback function to confirm the technical aspects of long-jump.3) The HSC and LSC groups showed marked differences in the relationships between the frequencies of typical parts of speech and the contents of the fourth teaching stage. In addition, the characteristics of teaching in the HSC group stimulated various self-activities by the children and highlighted subjective relationships to the technical aspects of long-jump from examination of two items (self-knowledge about skill development and cognitive development) in questionnaires used as imagery tests. 4) The results obtained for the AS in the HSC group revealed two types of typical verbal interaction shown by the teachers. One was to promote children's understanding of problems in various situations, and the other was to help them master the necessary motor skills in these situations. It is considered that the former was related to "knowledge of pupils and their characteristics" and the latter to "pedagogical content knowledge". 5) Form these results it is concluded that the teacher shapes his / her verbal interaction to stimulate self-activity among children and to produce subjective reactions to the technical aspects of movement, and that this interaction facilitates development of a favorable attitude toward physical education.
We carried out an international comparison of the cognitive structures of rugby football positions among high school players in Japan with those in France and England. First, multidimensional scaling (INDSCAL : Individual Differences Scaling) was applied to Japanese, English and French cognitive structures of rugby football positions. Twenty-six Japanese, 25 English and 23 French rugby players served as subjects. The results obtained by INDSCAL identified four dimensions : (1) formation, (2) maintaining an opportunity for attack, (3) scrum and lineout, (4) scanning. The second and fourth dimensions are newly identified, and are considered to be as important as the former for functional positioning on the field. Cluster analysis divided the 74 subjects into 4 clusters by weighting of the INDSCAL subjects' space. It was concluded that the Japanese cognitive structures of rugby football positions have a different character from those in England and France. Consideration of these results with those of former studies indicates that the players' cognitive structure of rugby football positions is influenced by the number of positions previously experienced. This analysis highlighted a difference in the cognitive structures of rugby football positions among high school players. Therefore, it will be necessary to create a coaching program for players in the early stage of learning giving consideration toward a dynamic positional viewpoint.
A study was carried out to obtain objective data for analysis of dance movement. This study assumed basically a three-dimensional evaluation scale model consisting of the quality of dance (weight, time, space, and flow), the body part and body action (dance movement). We also attempted to construct an evaluation scale from the viewpoint of kinetic force in weight qualities. Based on the assumption that weight quality can be evaluated by the motion quantity performed, the movement velocity was measured, rather than acceleration, to evalute the motion quality. 1) As the body part, four domains were determined by applying factor analysis to a correlation matrix whose elements were intercorrelations between 23 body points using their movement speeds, and evaluated for 231 action samples. 2) Subjective evaluation based on kinetic force at effective points on the body extracted by factor analysis was examined in terms of objectivity, reliability, and validity. It was considered that the subjective evaluation scale of kinetic force could be used effectively for analysis of dance movement.
Recently we developed a useful 12-min submaximal run test at an intensity regulated by ratings of perceived exertion in order to indireclty assess an individual's cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the 12-min submaximal run test as a convenient measure of maximal oxygen uptake (VO_2max) and anaerobic threshold (VO_2AT). The subjects were 103 men aged 22.0±2.6 years. All were asked to run for 12 min at an intensity corresponding to 13 on the Borg scale of perceived exertion, and their VO_2max and VO_2AT were measured on the treadmill by means of a graded exercise test (GXT). Pearson's product-moment correlations of 12-min submaximal run distance (2658±321m) with VO_2max (55.8±6.3ml / kg / min) or VO_2AT (40.4±7.0ml / kg / min) were found to be statistically significant (r=0.78 and r=0.76, respectively). The test-retest reliability coeffient of the 12-min submaximal run test on the 18 subjects selected voluntarity was 0.90. VO_2max and VO_2AT values were predicted from the results of the submaximal 12-min run using the prediction equation described by Nakagaichi et al. (1996) (Predicted VO_2max=56.1±6.3ml / kg / min, Predicted VO_2AT=43.7±6.9ml / kg / min). On VO_2max, the validity coefficient was r=0.80, standard errors of the estimate (SEE)=3.75ml / kg / min (SEE%=6.7%), and Error=3.93ml / kg / min. Similar results were obtained on VO_2AT ; r=0.78, SEE=4.37ml / kg / min (SEE%=10.8%), and Error=5.57ml / kg / min. There were no significant differences between measured VO_2max and VO_2AT and their predicted values. From heart rate (HR) data measured during the 12-min submaximal run test on 39 subjects selected randomly, the intensity of the run test was found to range from 85%HRmax to 90%HRmax, although the intensity was significantly higher than the AT. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between %HRmax in the latter half of the 12 minutes of the run test and %HRmax corresponding to RPE13 during GXT. These results suggest that the 12-min submaximal run test is a valid and reliable field test for young adult men. Finally, we attempted to redevelop equations for predicting VO_2max and VO_2AT from the distance covered in the 12-min submaximal run and age using the data from thase subjects : VO_2max=0.015X_1 (m)-0.46X_2 (yr) + 25.14 (R=0.80, SEE=3.77ml / kg / min)VO_2AT=0.017X_1 (m) -0.51X_2 (yr) + 7.53 (R=0.78, SEE=4.39ml / kg / min)X_1=Distance (m), X_2=Age (yr).
A study was performed to clarify the relationship between basic movements and respiration patterrn in Kyogen, a Japanese traditional performing art. The subjects were three professional Kyogen actors (Oukura-ryu, Yamamoto-ke), with performing careers of 10, 19 and 53 years, respectively. The latter subject had been designated an important intangible cultural property. The subjects were asked to perform four typical Shosa (kata) at three speeds and three Komai-a chain of dance movements. We recorded the respiration curve using a rubber strain gauge placed on the actor's thorax, and observed the relationship between movements and respiration phase, cycle, and ratio of inspiration time to expiration time. The results were as follows:Shosa (kata)Subj.10-year career : Regardless of movement speed, the respiration phases were harmonized, which is a typical feature of sports performance.Subj.53-year carrer : In all shosa, the respiration phases were independent of movements. However the respiration cycle and the ratio of inspiration time to expiration time were proportional to the speed of movement. Subj.19-year career : The subject showed features intermediate between those of the subjects with 10- and 53-year careers. Komai Subjs.with 19-and 53-year careers : The respiration curve was independent of movement, and appeared similar to that during the singing of "Utai" music by Jiutai actors. It was found that the the respiration curves between basic movements and the respiration pattern in Kyogen gradually changed from harmonization to separation, according to the actor's skill. However, during performance of "Utai", the respiration pattern was harmonized with the "Utali" melody.
Many junior high and high school students participate in school sport clubs. Despite the fact that educational corporal punishment is prohibited, some sports club coaches use violence during training. The purpose of this study was to clarify the use of violence by coaches in school sports clubs and discuss these findings from the viewpoint of aggression and its social influence. A Corporal Punishment Questionnaire was given to female college students (N=596) aged 19-21, who majored in physical education, asking them about their past experiences in junior high and high school. The results were as follows : 1. About one third of the subjects reported that coaches had used violence in school sports clubs. Most of these coaches were male (85%) high school teachers running volleyball or basketball clubs. It was pointed out that their aggressive behavior was aimed at achieving more team practices and wins. 2. The reasons for the violence were temas losing games, poor play, or poor understanding of the game. Because some students wanted to achieve greater sports success, they allowed themselves to be corporally punished (40%). Ultimately, however, they were glad to graduate from school and retire from the sports clubs. 3. Subjectes who had experienced sports-related violence anticipated that they would use corporal punishment themselves in their future coaching. They believed that corporal punishment would improve students' performance. Violent coaching seems to be linked with sports success. If we wish to prohibit violence and corporal punishment in sports practice, it is necessary to think more deeply about the true prpose of sport.