Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 45 , Issue 3
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages Cover9-
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages Cover10-
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages App3-
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Norishige Toyoda, Shiro Nakagomi
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 315-332
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We carried out a review of the literature on adjustment after athletic retirement, and presented several beneficial siggestions for future research.First, the literature was divided into two categories;theoretical study and empirical research.The theoretical studies suggested the following:1.Logical application from social gerontology and thanatology has been suggested to be useful for understanding athletic retirement:however, it left some questions about the full explanation for an athlete's leaving the sport.2.Models of adult transition could account for the various factors influencing athletes' responses to retirement.3.Life span development theory was suitable for understanding and explaining the athletes' experiences through athletic retirement.On the other hand, the empirical research suggested the following:1.The range of subjects investigated was extended from professional athletes to amateurs.2.Themes of research were transferred from finding the problems associated with athletic retirement and identifying factors affecting adaptation after retirement, to searching for concrete strategies of intervention.3.It was considered inportant for future research on athletic retirement to explain what elite athletes obtained through athletic retirement, how they obtained it, and how they put it to use in later life.Secondly, major career assistance programs in some foreign countries were reviewed.Most of these programs were found to be based on the life span development theory to help athletes through the transition period.These reviews demonstrated that it is necessary to grasp the experiences of retiring athletes and to identify several factors that contribute to adjustment during the postathletic period from a longitudinal perspective.In conclusion, we have suggested a useful framework for understanding and explaining athletic retirement as reconfirmation of ego identity.From this view point, retiring athletes should remain involved in athletic activities autonomously, and especially, during the period of transition, they should anticipate their socialization, and have some concrete perspectives about the post-athletic period before becoming confronted with a retirement crisis.
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  • Shinji Takai, Kuniyasu Imanaka, Ichiro Kita, Shuji Mori
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 333-346
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This study examined the effect of perception without awareness on somatosensory simple reaction time using a backward masking paradigm in nine subjects ranging in age from 21 to 38 years.In the backward masking paradigm, two types of electrical stimuli differing in intensity(one type ranging from 1.2 to 1.5 times the sensory threshold of each subject, and the other ranging from 4 to 5 times the threshold)were successively delivered with a 40-ms interstimulus interval to the subjects' right median nerve at the wrist through disk electrodes.There were three stimulation conditions:weak stimulus alone, strong stimulus alone, and doubles stimulation(which was the backward-masking condition, with a weak stimulus always preceding a strong one).The subjects were asked to respond to either the weak or the strong stimulus as quickly as possible by clicking on the computer mouse button, without any knowledge that the double stimulation would be included in the experimental trials.The results showed that the mean reaction time for double stimulation was significantly shorter than that for the strong stimulus condition, ant that the reaction time for the weak stimulus was the longest among the three conditions.The latter result indicated that the weak stimulus could not be perceived quickly.All subjects reported that they did not perceive the weak, preceding stimulus used for double stimulation-suggesting that the weak stimulus was masked by the following strong stimulus.Therefore, the weak stimulus, without the subject being aware of it, may have facilitated the preparatory processes for performing response actions, resulting in the shorter reaction times observed with double stimulation.These findings are discussed in terms of several conceptual and empirical models of information processing for sensation, perception, and preparation of motor responses in simple reaction time under backward masking.
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  • Takahiko Nishijima, Kazuhiro Suzuki, Hiroshi Koyama, Chiyo Kawaguchi, ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 347-359
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the causal structure of the promotion process of initiative problem-solving ability in a junior high school in physical education (PE) program utilizing Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).The healthy 298 boys and 300 girls, first to third graders answered a quastionnaire on the PE program at their school.The causal structure model of the promotion process of initiative problem-solving ability in the PE program was hypothesized to be a cyclic causal loop consisting of 4 major domains:intrinsic motivation, initiative action, achievement satisfaction and selfrecognition.Standardized Cronbach's α coefficient was utilized for reliability analysis, and second order factor analysis for analyzing the validity analysis of the indicators.SEM with a multiple indicator model was utilized to analyze the causal structure model.The coefficients of reliability and validity were statistically moderate for the causal structure analysis.The causal coefficient between the domains of intrinsic motivation and initiative action ability was .59, followed by .64 between the domains of initiative action ability and achievement satisfaction, .35 between those of achievement satisfaction and self-recognition, and .74 between those of self-recognition and intrinsic motivation.These causal coefficients between the domains of the model were statistically significant (P<.05).The degree of the model fitting indicator GFI was .92, followed by .88 for AGFI, .94 for NFI, .90 for CFI and .92 for TLI.It was inferred that the causal structure model in the promotion process of initiative problem-solving ability in the PE program was statistically valid from the degrees of the model-fitting indicators.
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  • Seiichi Sakuno
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 360-376
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Although there have been many studies of community sports clubs(CSC), little attention has been given to the organizing process of the CSC as a management body for community sport.The purposes of this study were to explain the organizing process of CSCs, based on a theory of social movements, and to consider how to promote community sport through the development of CSCs.The data were obtained from three CSCs, as typical examples, by reviewing previous reports and fieldwork.The main results are summarized as follows:1)The organizing process of a CSC could be explained by Katagiri's(1995)model which classifies the social movement process into seven phases.Applying this model, an organizing process model for a CSC was proposed.Furthermore a few obvious original characteristics of CSCs were highlighted.2)Taxonomy of the organizing process was constructed through a comparative analysis of the first type of organizing, termed "initiative of inhabitants", and the second type, termed"initiative of public administration".It consisted of five dimensions:degree of congnition for community issues, change agents of community sport environment, the meaning of organizing, resource mobilization, and types of decision-making.These findings suggest that supporting congnition of the sports environments is important for the development of a CSC.However, the present considerations are preliminary to further questioning based on better understanding of the development of a CSC.Further examination of the details of the proposed model is needed to build a support system for the development of CSCs.
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  • Hiroshi Nakao, Masahiro Kaneko, Jiro Toyooka, Hideki Touji, Toshio Nis ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 377-384
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was performed to re-examine the validity of the Shuttle Stamina Test(SST)and the relationship between the SST and the 20-m Shuttle Run Test(20mS).The 20mS developed by Leger et al.(1982)has been newly authorized as an endurance test by the Japanese Ministry of Education.The 20mS was performed on a 20-m shuttle course, in which the running speed was increased every minute until the subject could not continue(all-out).The 20mS test score was evaluated by the total number of repetitions of 20-m runs.The Shuttle Stamina Test(SST)designed by Kaneko et al.(1986)was performed by self-paced running for 3 min on a 10-m shuttle course, and the test score was evaluated by the shuttle distance convered in 3 min.The subjects were 344 males and 184 females, comprising 323 primary school children ranging in age from 6 to 11 years and 205 college students ranging in age from 18 to 28 years.Thirty-seven college students underwent VO_2max measurements using a maximal bicycle ergometer test.The SST scores and VO_2peak value following SST were closely correlated with VO_2max(p<0.01).These significant levels of correlation in the SST were equal to those among VO_2max, 20mS score and VO_2peak following the 20mS.SST scores demonstrated highly significant correlations with 20mS scores for all age sex groups, including school children and college students.These results suggest that the SST is an appropriate field test for evaluating an individual's aerobic capacity(or general endurance capacity), and that it can be used as a substitute test for the 20-m Shuttle Run Test.
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  • Yayoi Izaki, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 385-398
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This study attempted to investigate the structure of 17 body actions, consisting of 77 sub-body actions, to determine the fundamental body actions in dance from the viewpoint of kinetic force in weight qualities proposed by Rudolf Laban.On the assumption that kinetic force relates to the speed of dence movement(body action), the absolute value of the mean speed was measured at 23 body points in 231 action samples consisting of 77 sub-body actions, which were performed with three different strengths of movement, through a Frame-DIAS 2-dimensional movement analysis system.After the structure of sub-body actions had been examined by applying factor analysis to the each of 17 body actions, the fundamental body actions were investigated through factor analysis applied separately to the 77 sub-body actions, 31 subbody actions(single), and 46 sub-body actions(combination).Finally multi-step factor analysis was applied to the correlation matrices whose elements were loaded significantly on each of the factors extracted from factor analysis applied to the 77 sub-body actions.The following inferences were made.1)These factors were named jumping and turning factor, falling and recovering factor, stepping factor, and locomotion factor, which were determined comprehensively from separate application of factor analysis to the 77 sub-body actions, 31 sub-body actions(single), and 46 sub-body actions(combination).2)The first, second, third, fourth, and fifth factors extracted from the 77 sub-body actions were furthemore classified into 8 factors;jumping and turning factor, turning with jumping or stepping factor, locomotion with jumping or turning factor, falling and recovering factor, locomotion with stepping or gesture factor, stepping factor(2), stepping factor(1), and locomotion factor, through multistep factor analysis.3)With reference to the kinetic force of body actions in dance, the following four domains of body action were determined as the fundamental body action in dance:jumping and turning, stepping, falling and recovering, and locomotion.
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  • Shigenori Muto
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 399-413
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the Japanese table-tennis world, it is generally known that several organizations existed from 1921 to 1931 and that they competed with each other.Up to now, however, specific details of the history of these organizations during the above period have been unknown.The purpose of this study was to show that several organizations were set up because of divisions in the first organization between 1921 and 1931, to examine the reasons why these organizations competed among each other, and to clarify the whole picture of the genealogy of these organizations in Japan.The results of this study can be summarized as follows:1)There were thirteen organizations between 1921 and 1931.The number of organizations that split off from the original organization was five, and subsequently these organizations repeatedly merged and separated.2)Manufacturers of sporting goods maintained close connections with these organizations by dispatching staff, who became officers in the organizations.Thus, the manufacturers were appointed as exclusive agents or collaborators of the organizations.The said organizations and manufacturers established a relationship of interdependence through a system of official sponsorship.The organizations were in need of funds to maintain themselves, but on the other the manufacturers paid sponsoring fees so that their market share of balls could be expanded.In short, the manufacturers were sponsors of the organizations.Therefore, disputes between the organizations were caused by different sponsors.3)Viewed from the viewpoint of the manufacturers that were sponsoring the organizations, the whole aspect of the genealogy of the organizations in Japan was clarified.4)Furthermore, those involved in table tennis in Japan need to correct their historical perception based on the present findings.
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  • Yasunori Morioka, Masaaki Sugita, Akihumi Matsuo, Hidetaka Okada, Mich ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 414-421
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between features of change in velocity and performance of world class athletes in the men's 400-m hurdle race(400mH).Nine final races of 400mH were videotaped with several video cameras panning from the start to the finish at 60 fields/s.After the time indication had been superimposed on each field of the VTR images, the time at touchdown immediately after hurdling was obtained.Using the flash of the starter's gun recorded on the VTR image, each hurdle touchdown time from the start, and each section thme(from each hurdle to the next)was obtained.The results of regression analysis showed a significantly high correlation (r=0.90, p<0.001)between 400mH performance and mean section velocity from the 5th to the 8th hurdle(H5-8), and a significant correlation(r=-0.61, p<0.05)between 400mH performance and te rate of deceleration in H5-8.These results indicate that in 400mH it is important to avoid decreasing velocity and to maintain a high velocity in H5-8 of the race in order to attain a high performance.
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  • Mitsugi Ogata, Toshifumi Yasui, Keigo Ohyama Byun, Kazuhiko Yamazaki, ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 422-432
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to examine the relationship between the physical characteristics and race patterns of 400-m running in three elite 400-m runners.The experiments were composed of a physical fitness test and an analysis of 400-m race patterns.Maximal O_2 intake, maximal anaerobic power, isokinetic muscular endurance and isokinetic maximum muscular power were evaluated in a laboratory.Final 400-m races in the Japan Championship and the National Sports Festival were filmed using video cameras, and analyzed to calculate the changes in running speed during the 400-m distance.In accordance with the race analysis results, the three 400-m runners were divided into two types.One was the "even pace"type, which showed a tendency to maintain a higher running speed until the finish of the race.The other was the "first half"type, which showed the highest speed from the start until the 190-m point.The even pace type had a higher maximal O_2 intake and isokinetic muscular endurance of the lower limbs.The first half type was a good record holder over 100-m and 200-m distances.These results indicate that physical characteristics influence the race pattern of 400-m running.
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  • Tomihiko Sato
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 433-442
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Yasuko Endo
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 443-448
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 449-450
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 451-
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages Cover11-
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (49K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages Cover12-
    Published: May 10, 2000
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (49K)
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