This paper reviews the school-based physical activity (PA) interventions known as health-related physical education (PE), emphasizing the public health benefits for children and adolescents in the USA. The decline of PA with age is well known in children and adolescents, and may affect their future health as well as creating health problems in the immediate term. Although this phenomenon is well accepted in society, little attention has been paid to preventive efforts for the future. In the USA, school PE is seen as an ideal setting for the promotion of regular PA and is also expected to prepare children and adolescents for a lifetime of PA. In this review, the following items are discussed in relation to youth in the USA:1) the perspective of PA decline and national objectives such as Healthy People 2000 and 2010; 2) the evaluation and development of school PE programs to improve current health ; and 3) the potential contribution of school PE to lifelong PA. For maximal public health benefit, the PE has needed a paradigm shift with broad implications, and some multi-component school programs such as Go for Health, CATCH and SPARK have been developed to promote children's PA. In addition, these programs include not only the PA curriculum but also techniques for behavioral change such as goal setting, self-monitoring, and stimulus control to improve children's PA behavior both in and outside school as well as in PE lessons. Finally, the use of an ecological model, emphasized by the perspective of behavioral settings, is introduced to promote PA for children in a school setting.
An investigation was conducted to clarify the sports activities of Japanese prisoners of war in Siberia shortly after World War II. Up to now, little has been written concerning the sports activities of these prisoners, and this paper was intended to shed light on this blank in Japanese sports history. The historical materials used were collected mainly from the Nihon Shimbun (Japan Times), a prison newspaper edited by fifty Japanese prisoners and fifteen Russians. The Nihon Shimbun was the only source of information for the approximately 600,000 Japanese prisoners of war in Siberia. The newspaper was under the supervision of the political department of the Soviet army, but it is still highly revealing about life in the camps. It is well known that life in the camps was extremely difficult, so it is surprising to find that Japanese prisoners participated in various sports activities, even while enduring heavy labor, intense cold, and extreme hunger. It seems clear that these activities, along with theatrical and musical entertainment, did much to revive the spirits of the men.
A study was conducted to clarify the effects of exercise habits on cardiovascular reactivity to a psychological stressor in healthy Type A individuals. Ninety male and 88 female undergraduate students were initially recruited to complete the student version of the Jenkins Activity Survey as a measure of their Type A behavior pattern (TABP). Subjects were identified as Type A or Type B based on their TABP scores. They were then assigned to an exercise (E) or non-exercise (NE) group according to their exercise habits. Six females and six males each made up the 4 condition groups (Type A-E, Type A-NE, Type B-E and Type B-NE). Cardiovascular reactivity (heart rate:HR and skin temperature:ST) was assessed during the time periods of baseline, mirror drawing test (MDT) and recovery for all subjects. Results revealed that Type A individuals had greater and more rapid HR reactivity than Type B individuals and that male Type A subjects showed significantly greater ST reactivity relative to female Type A and Type B subjects. Only males showed a significant main effect of exercise habits on HR reactivity during the MDT. The E group demonstrated more rapid HR recovery following the task than the NE group. During the MDT, Type A individuals showed significantly greater ST reactivity than Type B subjects in the NE group, while there was no difference of TABP type in ST reactivity in the E group. Also, no significant main effect and interaction was shown in the MDT performance. These results suggest that exercise habits contribute to the lowering of cardiovascular reactivity to a psychological stressor and indirectly to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases for Type A individuals.
A study was conducted to investigate the fields used for training athletes, observing club activities at schools and private sports clubs as fields which respectively have their own systems for reproduction strategies to acquire relative autonomy (acquisition of authenticity) by themselves, and analyze the differences between the phases of somatised cultural capital (habitus) of the athletes trained in the two different fields from the viewpoints of educational and symbolic strategies in the two subgroups of the fields. The subjects studied were all high school soccer players who were highly ranked nationally. Of those, 194 had been playing the sport throughout their junior and senior high-school years, and 78 belonged to private sports clubs. The following is an outline of the results. 1) No differences were found between those from school clubs and private sports clubs in the cultural capital inherited in their childhood. Differences in the present phases of somatised cultural capital (habitus) between those from school clubs and private sports clubs were found 2) in the following:i) Those from school clubs had a particularly physical orientation such as the sanctification of the playing ground and excessive consideration for the relationship between seniors and juniors. ii) In terms of target orientation and view of sports, those from school clubs had a more affirmative attitude towards traditionalism, while those from private clubs were more affirmative towards such things as technique, effort, and discipline. iii) In terms of the opinions they held about their own groups, those from school clubs held opinions such as "hard," "collective," "formal," and" "high-handed," while those from private groups held opinions such as "soft," "personal," "rational," and "democratic." 3) It was suggested that with regard to the differences seen in the present phases of somatised cultural capital (habitus) examined from the viewpoint of educational and symbolic strategies, private sports clubs in particular exercised educational and symbolic strategies skillfully for the formation of a habitus that would not only conceal victory - centered orientation but also presuppose such mental orientation in tacit consent.
It was reported that when the upper or lower limbs were used in a simultaneously bilateral manner, bilateral deficit was observed compared to that in a unilateral manner (Vandervoort et al., 1984;Koh et al., 1993). This study were to determine the effect of resistance training or practice for shortening the response speed on the bilateral deficit and to investigate the mechanism mediating it. Findings from the study were as follows. Force exerted bilaterally was increased more by bilateral training and force exerted unilaterally was increased more by unilateral training. Therefore, lateral specificity exists in the effect of resistance training. Bilateral indices (BI) (Howard & Enoka, 1991) for the untrained upper/lower limb of the unilateral training group were shifted in a negative direction as for trained lower/upper limb. However, BIs for the untrained upper/lower limb in the bilateral training group were not shifted in a positive direction as these indices are for trained lower/upper limb. Practice in shortening the response speed improved the reaction time. However, BI was not changed because the bilateral reaction time shortened accompanying with unilateral left reaction time. It was suggested that a program for unifying responses of the left and right hand exists in the right hemisphere and that bilateral reaction time was elongated by this added process. Though bilateral deficit in strength and reaction time seemed to be the same phenomenon, mechanisms mediating both phenomena were not suspected to be completely same.