This paper outlines the development of the falling self-efficacy (FSE) scale for elderly people. From interviews with 24 elderly people who lived in a home for the aged, 27 items were selected as indicators of fall events or fall-related situations during daily life activities in Study 1. These items were applied to 151 elderly people who lived in a community area and nursing homes to develop the scale in Study 2. Finally, the 15-item FSE scale was developed after checking the distribution for each item. The scale showed high reliability in terms of internal consistency (a=.96) and the test-retest procedure (r=.74) in Study 3. In Study 4, the validity was examined by finding the relationships between the FSE score and some movement variables for 10-m walking and stepping-over a 30-cm obstacle. The FSE score was significantly correlated with stride length and velocity during walking, as well as stride distance and velocity during stepping-over. Fallers during the last year also had a significantly smaller FSE score than non-fallers. In addition, persons who had a high fear of falling showed a significantly smaller FSE score. For future research, this scale should be used to screen elderly persons who have a marked fear of falling leading to restriction of their physical activity and to clarify the effects of a fall prevention program. Finally, it is considered that a cognitive-behavioral approach plays an important role in effective fall-prevention programs for elderly people.
A study was conducted to analyze the concept of play among the Hutterites, a religious ethnic minority. They have maintained their unique culture based on Christianity for more than 450 years. They form communities, each of which is usually called a "colony" living under a joint ownership system. Therefore they share everything, such as food and clothing they also have to share labor. They have a very strict life style, which follows Biblical philosophy; they try to avoid worldly pleasures or desires. Many scholars have focused more on their religious beliefs, education, economic activities and social structure, and the impression has been that the Hutterites do not engage in any form of play. However, through fieldwork it was confirmed that the Hutterites do engage in play in everyday life. In this paper, their concept of play is analyzed in two ways the behavior of value standards determined by their faith and their recognition of play in everyday life. As a result, they have two religious value standards for dealing with behavior, such as the positive term "delighted Gβod" and the negative term "delighted flesh". In their everyday life, they recognize play as "shpil (spiel)", "shpas (spa β)" and "lust". "Shpil" is a general term for child's play, and the other two terms represent adult's play. Within adult's play, they distinguish between "shpas" and "lust" ; "shpas" is acceptable play which delights God, while "lust" is labeled as rejection which delights flesh. Therefore, if they recognize their play as "shpas", and if their recognition adjusts to their faith, they can accept play.
The study was conducted to examine the relationships between subjective symptoms of fatigue(SSF), subjective fatigue feeling (SFF) and life habits of students. A SSF questionnaire, including subjective feelings of fatigue and life habits, was administered to adolescent students aged 15-20 yr. Data from 5435 subjects who responded to the questionnaire were used for statistical analysis. Students with a higher SFF tend to have more complaints of SSF, especially in males, in the relationships between SFF and symptoms of languor and drowsiness, and in females, the incidence of drowsiness and physical disintegration were high. Relationships between SFF and physical condition during the day and waking in the morning were marked in males and females. The closes relationship between life habits and SSF involved symptoms of languor in males and females. In particular, the relationship between SFF and symptoms of languor was marked. It is considered that improving the level of physical fitness, thus reducing the feeling of languor, is important. The relationship between SFF and breakfast is not marked in males and females.
In order to collect information concerned with the development of a measuring device for baseball pitching, pattern of motion and ball speed during a baseball pitch were estimated from acceleration measured at the wrist through multivariate analysis. The subjects were 26 college baseball players (eight pitchers, five catchers, nine infielders and four outfielders). Three accelerometers were attached to the wrist of each subject. The subjects then pitched fifteen times, with intensities ranging from weak to full, to a defensive net set up six meters distant. The accelerometers were arranged perpendicularly to each other on three axes : distal-proximal direction, ulnar-radial direction, and dorsalpalmar direction. The ball speed was measured with a laser device set between the subjects and the defensive net. The time of ball-release was detected using electrical conductive tape placed on the tip of each subjects index and middle fingers and the ball. After extracting the 18 parameters relating to amplitude and time that characterize the acceleration wave, the 26 subjects were classified into three groups-A, B and C-by cluster analysis, and ball speed was estimated in each group by multiple regression analysis. The estimation errors were 2.3 ± 1.8% in group A, 2.5 ± 2.3% in group B, 2.4 ± 2.4% in group C, and 3.4 ± 2.8% for all data. For estimating the ball speed, acceleration in the distal-proximal direction was more effective than that in the other two directions.