This paper presents a historical overview of studies on Basque sport culture. The author argues that it is necessary for Basque sport studies to be analyzed separately from the colonialist viewpoint in order to construct new theories. Basque sports have scarcely been regarded by researchers as an important study topic. This is partly due to geographical reasons; the Basque provinces are located at the periphery of Europe and have failed to attract attention from other countries. On the other hand, the neglect may be attributed to biased thinking by researchers, who have treated the Basques as rather primitive. In fact, to previous rulers of the Basque people, they have been no more than a country supporting the wealth of Europe during the era of colonization. However, the Basque identity became intensified after the Carlista War and the American-Spanish War in the 19th century. Furthermore, the Basque defeat in the Spanish Civil War and the resulting political oppression by Franco had a decisive effect on accelerating Basque studies. The Society of Basque Studies was established in Onate in 1918, right after the first Meeting for Basque Studies. Under the leadership of the Society, research and investigations were gradually conducted. Early researchers included Barandiaran, Eguren, and more notably Aranzadi, who characterized some of the features of betting, and suggested a possible classification of the subject. With regard to pelota vasca, Pena y Goni, Blazy, and Abbadie were prominent researchers who focused their attention on the game. Abbadie also integrated various feasts, which had been scattered throughout the Basque region, as a whole entity. At the present time, a leading researcher of Basque sports is Aguirre Franco, who has gathered and provided much information and material. His achievements include the publication of three books dealing with the details of Basque sports other than pelota. On the other hand, Fernandez and Bozas-Urrutia are noted for a number of works on pelota, although they have failed to explain the difference between the history of ordinary ball games and that of pelota. With regard to infant play in general, Etniker, as part of a research group on Basque Studies, has conducted ethnological studies using originally compiled questionnaires. The results of these studies helped Etxebste to write his doctoral thesis dealing with themes such as socialization and enculturation in Basque society. In the field of dancing, attention has been focused to a great extent on its history and the theory of movement. Various works are already published in this domain, notably that of Martin Bosch, who wrote a doctoral dissertation discussing Basque dancing in terms of cultural interpretation. He emphasizes that the Basque dances express wishes and prayers to Nature. Recently, Basque studies have been conducted on a global scale. MacClancy, an British researcher, is conducting studies mainly on ethnic sports and Basque nationalism. Guildhall University has set up an institute for Basque studies. In the United States, Nevada University has an outstanding institute for Basque studies which plays an important role as a center of research. Regrettably, however, it has not yet done any original sports research. In Japan, Taketani has been engaged in Basque studies for many years. He criticizes current studies for being based on the western way of thinking, i.e., culturally biased. He also points out some transformed aspects of Basque sport culture.
One of the most frequently identified psychosocial correlates with adherence to physical activity (PA) and exercise is the individual's perception of personal capability or self-efficacy (SE: Bandura, 1986, 1997). It is well known that SE perceptions are influenced by, or influence, the PA and exercise participation. To date, a wide variety of SE scales have been developed and applied in studies of PA and exercise. In this review, we consider the extant literature dealing with the influential roles of SE in relation to PA and exercise for healthy people. We first provide a brief overview of SE roles in Social Cognitive Theory developed by Bandura. Second, three types of SE scales (task, barrier, and general) are surveyed in PA and exercise participation, which examine different modes of SE. Task SE refers to measures directed at the assessment of beliefs regarding subjects' capabilities to successfully engage in incremental bouts of PA and exercise. Barrier SE is used to typically assess beliefs in capability to overcome social, personal and environmental barriers to doing PA and exercise. General SE is examined as more general measure of the efficacy construct due to its general-ization to PA and exercise. After each review, we discuss some measurement-related issues related to the development of SE scales to the PA and exercise domain: level and strength, item number and content, and reliability and validity. Finally we conclude with some recommendations for future considerations in the measurement of self-efficacy.
Previous experimental studies (Yamamoto and Gohara, 1999; 2000) have shown that continuous hitting movements have a hierarchical fractal structure, as predicted by dynamical systems approaches with external temporal input. The switching input condition in the previous experiments showed higher performance than when periodic input was applied. To extend this finding to motor learning, we therefore examined the influence of a similar complex hitting action on performance using novices as subjects. Hitting performances of novices were recorded under two conditions: one where two different hitting actions (forehand and backhand tennis strokes) were switched repeatedly-as was the case for the switching condition used in the previous experiment- and one where only one of the two strokes was repeated, corresponding to the periodic input condition. In the complex hitting condition, the end phase and the next preparatory phase were shown to be "fused" in the intermediate phase, as a consequence of exploiting the inertia of the trunk rotation movement, and subjects showed better performance under the complex hitting condition than under the continuous hitting condition. These results suggest that when more than two different classes of novel movements need to be acquired, the movement combination that exploits the physical inertia would be more effective than repeating each movement individually.