Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 47 , Issue 5
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages Cover17-
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages Cover18-
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages App7-
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Masatoshi Yokota
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 427-437
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to clarify the variation in the motivation in high school athletes and the related burnout scale. Three different public high schools in the city of Utsunomiya, Japan, were investigated, and a total of 316 students (male, n=255, female, n=61) who entered high school in April 1997 and who belonged to a school sports club in November 1997, were enrolled. Participants completed a questionnaire about the frequency and duration of sports activities, the competitive level of his/her club, the motivation of participating in sports, and burnout scale. Students who continued to participate in a school sports club completed the same questionnaire every six months (November 1997, May 1998, November 1998, May 1999). Statistical analysis suggested that it was possible to estimate which students would continue to participate in school sports clubs and which would quit. The findings also suggested that when students continue to participate in sports club activities, the desire to improve themselves decreases, their emotional exhaustion increases and the relationship between teammates worsens as they continue to participate.
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  • Noriko Umeda, Ryosuke Shigematsu, Masaki Nakagaichi, Kiyoji Tanaka
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 439-450
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Previous studies have examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in older adults, but no conclusive research results have been obtained. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between BMI and selected physical fitness variables in older adults. We recruited 464 independently-living older adults (156 men and 308 women), aged 60-80 years, from two communities. BMI was calculated as body weight (kg) divided by the squared height (kg/m^2). Based on percentile rank of BMI, participants were categorized into three groups: (1) low BMI (men: <21.1, n = 31; women: <20.8, n = 61), (2) middle BMI (men: 21.1-26.0, n = 94; women: 20.8-26.2, n = 186), and (3) high BMI (men:≧ 26.0, n = 31; women:≧ 26.2, n = 61). Participants completed 11 physical performance tests related to activities of daily living (ADL). The 11 performance tests were summarized as three fitness domains: total physical fitness, physical fitness of upper limbs, and physical fitness of lower limbs. In addition, the 11 performance tests were summarized as four ADL domains: locomotion of whole body, manipulation of upper limb, manipulation of finger, and change of posture. These domains among the three groups were compared using ANCOVA, in which age was used as the covariate. For men, manipulation of the upper limb was found to be poorer in the low BMI group than in the other two groups, and for women was poorer in the low BMI group than in the high BMI group (P<0.05). For women, physical fitness of the lower limbs and change of posture were found to be poorer in the high BMI group than in the other two groups (P< 0.05). These results suggest that low BMI and high BMI are related to selected physical fitness parameters among older adults, and may affect the ability perform ADL, regardless of gender.
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  • Toshiaki Nakatani, Masakazu Nadamoto, Kan-Ichi Mimura, Minoru Itoh
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 451-461
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The ability to rise from a chair is an important task of daily living. Many persons have increasing difficulty with this task as they proceed into the late decades of life. This study examined the validity of a 30-s chair stand (CS-30) test for evaluating the lower extremity muscle strength of 486 Japanese elderly adults (209 men and 277 women, aged 60-87 years). To determine the test-retest reliability of CS-30 performances, 44 elderly men and women underwent CS-30 testing on two occasions, 4-10 days apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were r=.84 for men and r=.88 for women, indicating that the CS-30 test has good reproducible reliability. The moderate correlation between CS-30 performance and maximum voluntary isometric contraction force of knee extension was r=.44 for men and r=.52 for women. Regression analysis revealed an age-associated decline in CS-30 performance for men (r=.45, p<0.001) and women (r=.44, p<0.001), but no differences were observed between the gender groups. In both men and women, the CS-30 performance of the 70-74, 75-79, and 80+ yr age groups was significantly lower (p<0.001) than that of the 60-64 yr group. These results suggest that the CS-30 test has a high correlation of test-retest reliability and is a useful method for evaluating the lower extremity muscle strength of Japanese elderly men and women in a field setting.
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  • Kyoko Inaba, Ken-ichi Katoh, Masashi Miyamaru, Shinya Kuno, Mitsugi Og ...
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 463-472
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A follow-up method was used to study the progress of sprint performance in one female sprinter from the age of 19 to 24 years. Measurements were performed annually every November for maximum sprint speed, stride frequency, stride length, and sprint motion of the angular kinematics over 60 m at full sprint. In addition, the isokinetic peak torques during knee extension and flexion were measured at 60, 180, and 300 deg/s. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to determine the muscle cross-sectional area of the thigh (upper: 70%). The best sprint speed was 8.78 m/s at 24 years old, and stride length and stride frequency were 1.93 m and 4.55 Hz, respectively. The percentages at 24 years old were 102.5%, 101.6%, and 100.0%, respectively, when sprint speed, stride length and stride frequency at 19 years old were set as 100%. The purpose of the sprint training was to reduce flexion and extension of the knee joint during the support phase and quicken leg swing velocity. From 19 to 24 years of age, the knee joint angle at the moment of foot contact and release showed no clear change. However, the maximal knee flexion angular velocity decreased by 27.3%, while leg swing velocity increased by 6.8%. The purpose of the physical fitness training was mainly to strengthen the muscle force of the hamstrings in the femoral region. From 21 to 24 years of age, iso-kinetic peak torques during knee fiexion (angular velocity; 180, and 300 deg/s) showed increases of 40-70%, and that of hamstrings in the thigh also increased by 16%. Furthermore, fat in a cross-sectional area of the femoral region decreased markedly by about 30% between 19 and 24 years of age. These results suggest that sprint training using scientific knowledge improved the sprint performance of this subject.
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  • Hirokazu Ishii
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 473-478
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This keynote lecture is based on the fieldwork conducted in each region of Indonesia for about 5 months. Indonesia is a treasure-house of ethnic sports. However, although a few articles on Indonesian ethnic sports appeared during the Dutch colonial era, nothing have appeared since then. Later, during the late 1970s, Indonesian sports became more important in a field for study. It is impossible to study Indonesian ethnic sports without the view point of the nation states "Indonesia" because it exists as cultural policy of nation states.
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  • Mikio Tokunaga
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 479-484
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Masaaki Kubo
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 485-490
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Mitsuru Saito
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 491-497
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sympathetic neural control of the cardiovascular system plays a crucial role in supplying oxygen from the lung to the contracting skeletal muscle during exercise to meet the increased metabolic rate. Direct recording of human sympathetic nerve activity, i.e. microneurography, has provided a wealth of new findings, as follows: 1. The muscle metabo- and mechano-reflex is essential to the normal rise in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static and rhythmic handgrip exercise. 2. Exercise intensity and duration influence the extent of MSNA during dynamic cycling exercise. MSNA increases in proportion to exercise intensity, which is governed by peripheral reflex and central control mechanisms. At maximal exercise, the strong MSNA response seems to be caused mainly by increased central command. 3. During prolonged low-intensity cycling, MSNA increases in association with a fall in blood pressure. Thus, the baroreflex may play a key role of the increase of MSNA. The present review addresses what mechanism is important for control of the sympathetic nervous system during exercise based on the actual MSNA response during different forms of exercise. The results suggest that MSNA during dynamic exercise is controlled by many inputs from the central and peripheral areas, whereas there has been little study of the MSNA response to dynamic exercise. It will be necessary to accumulate further studies to confirm precise details of neural control of the circulation during dynamic exercise.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 498-
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages Cover19-
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages Cover20-
    Published: September 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
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