A study was conducted to clarify the variation in the motivation in high school athletes and the related burnout scale. Three different public high schools in the city of Utsunomiya, Japan, were investigated, and a total of 316 students (male, n=255, female, n=61) who entered high school in April 1997 and who belonged to a school sports club in November 1997, were enrolled. Participants completed a questionnaire about the frequency and duration of sports activities, the competitive level of his/her club, the motivation of participating in sports, and burnout scale. Students who continued to participate in a school sports club completed the same questionnaire every six months (November 1997, May 1998, November 1998, May 1999). Statistical analysis suggested that it was possible to estimate which students would continue to participate in school sports clubs and which would quit. The findings also suggested that when students continue to participate in sports club activities, the desire to improve themselves decreases, their emotional exhaustion increases and the relationship between teammates worsens as they continue to participate.
Previous studies have examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in older adults, but no conclusive research results have been obtained. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between BMI and selected physical fitness variables in older adults. We recruited 464 independently-living older adults (156 men and 308 women), aged 60-80 years, from two communities. BMI was calculated as body weight (kg) divided by the squared height (kg/m^2). Based on percentile rank of BMI, participants were categorized into three groups: (1) low BMI (men: <21.1, n = 31; women: <20.8, n = 61), (2) middle BMI (men: 21.1-26.0, n = 94; women: 20.8-26.2, n = 186), and (3) high BMI (men:≧ 26.0, n = 31; women:≧ 26.2, n = 61). Participants completed 11 physical performance tests related to activities of daily living (ADL). The 11 performance tests were summarized as three fitness domains: total physical fitness, physical fitness of upper limbs, and physical fitness of lower limbs. In addition, the 11 performance tests were summarized as four ADL domains: locomotion of whole body, manipulation of upper limb, manipulation of finger, and change of posture. These domains among the three groups were compared using ANCOVA, in which age was used as the covariate. For men, manipulation of the upper limb was found to be poorer in the low BMI group than in the other two groups, and for women was poorer in the low BMI group than in the high BMI group (P<0.05). For women, physical fitness of the lower limbs and change of posture were found to be poorer in the high BMI group than in the other two groups (P< 0.05). These results suggest that low BMI and high BMI are related to selected physical fitness parameters among older adults, and may affect the ability perform ADL, regardless of gender.
This keynote lecture is based on the fieldwork conducted in each region of Indonesia for about 5 months. Indonesia is a treasure-house of ethnic sports. However, although a few articles on Indonesian ethnic sports appeared during the Dutch colonial era, nothing have appeared since then. Later, during the late 1970s, Indonesian sports became more important in a field for study. It is impossible to study Indonesian ethnic sports without the view point of the nation states "Indonesia" because it exists as cultural policy of nation states.