Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 47 , Issue 6
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages Cover21-
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages Cover22-
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages App8-
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Seungsoo Lee
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 521-531
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The festival of Miryang-paekchung-nori is held annually in the town of Miryang, Korea, on the day of the dragon, which is around July 15th according to the old calender. This study discusses the people who take part in the festival, and their social status. In order to understand their social status better, the study focused on those who participated in the preceding research, and correlations among them. People who take part in the festival have formulated their own original festival procedure, and have preserved it; however, the festival has been influenced by the modernization and urbanization of Korean society, and thus has gradually declined. Between 1970 and 1980, various people including one of the organizers planned to reshape the festival as a form of traditional entertainment, and their creative work was promoted. The person who played the main role in promoting the festival was F1, who was a descendent of Gullippae and his partner of Kisaeng union. Also, E, who was a descendent of Namsadangpae, played an important role. Therefore the social status of these keymen was not ajon or even yangban which form the middle or upper class, but were descendents of the lowest class who had been looked down on by society. Moreover, the various original performances of these people had gradually become integrated into Miryang with time.
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  • Kenji Tauchi, Sungjin Yoon, Kaoru Takamatsu
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 533-546
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to investigate the difference between force output characteristics of the upper and lower limbs in individuals focusing on limb stiffness using a mass-spring model during exercise. Fourteen trained males performed purely concentric (PC) exercise and two kinds of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercises (counter movement, rebound movement) for both the upper limbs (push-up) and lower limbs (jump). Upper and lower limb forces were assessed using the mean force generated during the concentric phase of each exercise. Pre-stretch augmentation (augmentation) was defined as the ratio of the mean force of SSC exercise to the mean force of PC exercise. Upper and lower limb stiffnesses were calculated as the mean force divided by the vertical displacement during the eccentric phase of SSC exercise. The results were as follows: 1) Mean force of SSC exercises were significantly higher than that of PC exercise in both upper and lower limbs. However, augmentation was much higher in the lower limbs than in the upper limbs. 2) There were significant negative correlations between stiffness and mean force (r=-0.661, p<0.05), and stiffness and augmentation (r=-0.743, p<0.01) during rebound push-up. In contrast, there were significant positive correlations between stiffness and mean force (r=0.680, p<0.05), and stiffness and augmentation (r=0.782, p<0.01) during rebound jump. 3) There was a significant correlation between upper mean force and lower mean force during PC exercise (r=0.607, p<0.05). However, there were no significant correlations in counter movement (r=-0.092, ns) and rebound exercise (r=-0.278, ns). These results indicate that ability to utilize the benefit of SSC movements and optimum limb stiffness for forceoutput are different in the upper and lower limbs, and that the force output characteristics of the upper and lower limbs vary in each individual during SSC movement.
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  • Koya Suzuki, Takahiko Nishijima
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 547-567
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to scale attacking performance in soccer games, and to confirm the causal structure model of attacking skill. The observation materials were 156 attacks which reached the shooting or assisted-pass stage during the four men's quarter final soccer games at the Sydney Olympics in 2000. Attacking game performances were assessed from the distances between attackers and defenders, and the number of defenders, using interval scales. The scaling procedure for attacking performance involved 1) analyzing the qualitative structure of attacking performances using qualitative cause and effect analysis and the Delphi method, 2) testing for objectivity, 3) selecting measurement items using reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), 4) testing of construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), 5) testing of factor invariance for the CFA model using multi-group analysis, 6) examination of the causal structure model using structural equation modeling (SEM) with the multiple-indicator model, and 7) examination of factor invariance of the causal structure model using multi-group analysis. From the CFA, high validity coefficients for the 3 attacking skills and 8 items were obtained. The causal structure model of attacking skill was found to be statistically valid. The highest goodness-of-fit indices were obtained in the strong factorial invariance level from multi-group analysis of the CFA model and the multiple-indicator model. It was concluded that attacking skill consisted of 3 sub-domains that could be measured from 8 game performance items in the attacking phases of soccer games.
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  • Kenji Tauchi, Sungjin Yoon, Yoshinari Kuriyama, Kaoru Takamatsu
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 569-577
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of physical fitness for javelin throwers focusing on the ability to achieve ballistic stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) movement of the lower limbs. Fourteen javelin throwers (JT), ten other throwers (OT) and twelve jumpers (J) performed rebound drop jumps (RDJ) from a box with a height of 0.3 m. The ability to achieve ballistic SSC movement was evaluated using the RDJ index proposed by Zushi et al. (1993). The RDJ index was calculated using the formula [RDJ index=(1/8・g・Ta^2)/Tc], where g is 9.81m/s2, and Ta and Tc are air time and contact time in RDJ, respectively. The results were as follows: 1) RDJ-index in JT was significant lower than that in J, but significantly higher than that in OT. 2) Contact time in JT was similar to J, and air time in JT was similar to OT. 3) Although there was no significant correlation between javelin throw record and contact time (r=-0.270, ns), there were significant correlations between javelin throw record and air time (r=0.620, p<0.05), and RDJ index (r=0.692, p<0.01). These findings suggest that the ability to achieve ballistic SSC movement of the lower limbs in javelin throwers is ranked between jumpers and other throwers, and that explosive power evaluated by the RDJ index may be required in order to improve the performance of a javelin thrower.
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  • Koji Takenaka, Hiroaki Uechi, Hirokazu Arai
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 579-592
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study investigated the hypothesis that the effects of an acute bout of exercise on psychological response (PR), such as state anxiety and mood, may be influenced by individual levels of trait anxiety with exercise habits and anticipatory responses (AR) prior to the exercise. One hundred and two male and 48 female undergraduates in university athletic clubs were used as a sample of individuals with regular exercise habits, and 81 male and 55 female non-athletic students were used as a sample of individuals with non-exercise habits. The subjects completed the trait version of Spielberger's State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) and the Activity Index as screening tests. From the high and low STAI-T students with exercise and non-exercise habits, 48 subjects were selected by gender for the experiment. All subjects completed the state version of the STAI (STAI-S) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) as measures of AR prior to, and following a 12-min bicycle ergometer task with prior warm-up at a heart rate of 120 bpm. The results showed that the level of trait anxiety influenced the PR scores in the STAI-S and some subscales of the POMS, even after statistically controlling for their AR scores. The PR scores were affected by the AR scores of the STAI-S and depression of the POMS, while the AR scores had significantly closer relationships with the differences before and after the tests in the tension and fatigue subscales of the POMS than with the PR scores following exercise. These results suggest that PR following exercise depends on trait factors such as anxiety and exercise habit.
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  • Akisato Suzuki
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 593-606
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    T. Yamamoto (1985) has stated that the leaders of physical education and sports after World War II in Japan were the same persons who engaged in militaristic physical education and sports during the War. On the other hand, H. Wray (1982, 1986, 1990) has claimed that the CIE under control of the GHQ/SCAP, drew up a written list of "Liberal Educators of Japan" (LEJ) in 1946, but up to now this list has not been discovered. The fact that there is such a list suggests the possibility that militaristic leaders are, in fact, included among the LEJ. The purpose of this study was to consider how militaristic leaders of physical education and sports were able to be active during the early period of occupation in Japan by analyzing the LEJ. The results clearly showed that 57 leaders of physical education and sports were listed as liberal educators, of whom 38 were described as neither militaristic nor liberal, 2 were described as both militaristic and liberal, and only 9 were described as genuinely liberal. The important point to note was that 8 of the 57 leaders were described as militaristic. The reasons why these 8 militaristic leaders were engaged in liberal education were as follows: 1. They had already held important positions in physical education and sports as of 1946. 2. They were suggested by influential persons to be trusted by the CIE. 3. They were well experienced in studying abroad from the prewar period and throughout World War II, and well informed about world affairs in both physical education and sports. 4. The CIE placed much faith in their scientific ability. 5. They were indispensable for collecting information on Japanese physical education and sports. As a result, it seems appropriate to conclude that the CIE needed leaders who were not genuine liberal educators, but rather reformers with ability and status, and that the militaristic leaders were the only liberal educators capable of achieving reform. The evidence would suggest that the militaristic leaders were, in fact, protected by the CIE. Thus this study has shown that one of the factors that allowed militaristic leaders to be engaged in physical education and sports as liberal educators after World War II was that the LEJ were recognized by the CIE.
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  • Masashi Miyamaru
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 607-614
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Katsuo Fujiwara
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 615-624
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 625-630
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Index
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 631-633
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 635-
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages Cover23-
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages Cover24-
    Published: November 10, 2002
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
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