The festival of Miryang-paekchung-nori is held annually in the town of Miryang, Korea, on the day of the dragon, which is around July 15th according to the old calender. This study discusses the people who take part in the festival, and their social status. In order to understand their social status better, the study focused on those who participated in the preceding research, and correlations among them. People who take part in the festival have formulated their own original festival procedure, and have preserved it; however, the festival has been influenced by the modernization and urbanization of Korean society, and thus has gradually declined. Between 1970 and 1980, various people including one of the organizers planned to reshape the festival as a form of traditional entertainment, and their creative work was promoted. The person who played the main role in promoting the festival was F1, who was a descendent of Gullippae and his partner of Kisaeng union. Also, E, who was a descendent of Namsadangpae, played an important role. Therefore the social status of these keymen was not ajon or even yangban which form the middle or upper class, but were descendents of the lowest class who had been looked down on by society. Moreover, the various original performances of these people had gradually become integrated into Miryang with time.
The purpose of this study was to scale attacking performance in soccer games, and to confirm the causal structure model of attacking skill. The observation materials were 156 attacks which reached the shooting or assisted-pass stage during the four men's quarter final soccer games at the Sydney Olympics in 2000. Attacking game performances were assessed from the distances between attackers and defenders, and the number of defenders, using interval scales. The scaling procedure for attacking performance involved 1) analyzing the qualitative structure of attacking performances using qualitative cause and effect analysis and the Delphi method, 2) testing for objectivity, 3) selecting measurement items using reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), 4) testing of construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), 5) testing of factor invariance for the CFA model using multi-group analysis, 6) examination of the causal structure model using structural equation modeling (SEM) with the multiple-indicator model, and 7) examination of factor invariance of the causal structure model using multi-group analysis. From the CFA, high validity coefficients for the 3 attacking skills and 8 items were obtained. The causal structure model of attacking skill was found to be statistically valid. The highest goodness-of-fit indices were obtained in the strong factorial invariance level from multi-group analysis of the CFA model and the multiple-indicator model. It was concluded that attacking skill consisted of 3 sub-domains that could be measured from 8 game performance items in the attacking phases of soccer games.
This study investigated the hypothesis that the effects of an acute bout of exercise on psychological response (PR), such as state anxiety and mood, may be influenced by individual levels of trait anxiety with exercise habits and anticipatory responses (AR) prior to the exercise. One hundred and two male and 48 female undergraduates in university athletic clubs were used as a sample of individuals with regular exercise habits, and 81 male and 55 female non-athletic students were used as a sample of individuals with non-exercise habits. The subjects completed the trait version of Spielberger's State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) and the Activity Index as screening tests. From the high and low STAI-T students with exercise and non-exercise habits, 48 subjects were selected by gender for the experiment. All subjects completed the state version of the STAI (STAI-S) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) as measures of AR prior to, and following a 12-min bicycle ergometer task with prior warm-up at a heart rate of 120 bpm. The results showed that the level of trait anxiety influenced the PR scores in the STAI-S and some subscales of the POMS, even after statistically controlling for their AR scores. The PR scores were affected by the AR scores of the STAI-S and depression of the POMS, while the AR scores had significantly closer relationships with the differences before and after the tests in the tension and fatigue subscales of the POMS than with the PR scores following exercise. These results suggest that PR following exercise depends on trait factors such as anxiety and exercise habit.
T. Yamamoto (1985) has stated that the leaders of physical education and sports after World War II in Japan were the same persons who engaged in militaristic physical education and sports during the War. On the other hand, H. Wray (1982, 1986, 1990) has claimed that the CIE under control of the GHQ/SCAP, drew up a written list of "Liberal Educators of Japan" (LEJ) in 1946, but up to now this list has not been discovered. The fact that there is such a list suggests the possibility that militaristic leaders are, in fact, included among the LEJ. The purpose of this study was to consider how militaristic leaders of physical education and sports were able to be active during the early period of occupation in Japan by analyzing the LEJ. The results clearly showed that 57 leaders of physical education and sports were listed as liberal educators, of whom 38 were described as neither militaristic nor liberal, 2 were described as both militaristic and liberal, and only 9 were described as genuinely liberal. The important point to note was that 8 of the 57 leaders were described as militaristic. The reasons why these 8 militaristic leaders were engaged in liberal education were as follows: 1. They had already held important positions in physical education and sports as of 1946. 2. They were suggested by influential persons to be trusted by the CIE. 3. They were well experienced in studying abroad from the prewar period and throughout World War II, and well informed about world affairs in both physical education and sports. 4. The CIE placed much faith in their scientific ability. 5. They were indispensable for collecting information on Japanese physical education and sports. As a result, it seems appropriate to conclude that the CIE needed leaders who were not genuine liberal educators, but rather reformers with ability and status, and that the militaristic leaders were the only liberal educators capable of achieving reform. The evidence would suggest that the militaristic leaders were, in fact, protected by the CIE. Thus this study has shown that one of the factors that allowed militaristic leaders to be engaged in physical education and sports as liberal educators after World War II was that the LEJ were recognized by the CIE.