Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 48 , Issue 2
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages App8-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages App9-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages App10-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Kenji Tauchi, Sungjin Yoon, Tetsu Yamada, Kaoru Takamatsu
    Type: Article
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 137-151
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    A study was conducted to investigate power output characteristics of the upper limbs during the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) movement for throwing. The power Output characteristics were examined with the influence of apparent stiffness for the upper limbs. Seven javelin throwers performed purely concentric throw (CT) and SSC rebound throw (RT) with medicine balls weighing 1 kg, 2 kg and 3 kg. Mean ball power (MP_<ball>), pre-stretch augmentation (augmentation), and apparent stiffness (K_<upper>) were calculated using kinematic and kinetic data. The results were as follows: 1) MP_<ball> in RT was significantly higher than that in CT. 2) When MP_<ball> and augmentation were compared between four stiff subjects (stiff type) and three compliant subjects (compliant type), the compliant type tended to have higher MP_<ball> and augmentation than the stiff type. 3) The stiff type showed higher values for relative work of the elbow joint than the compliant type, whereas the compliant type showed higher values for relative work of the shoulder joint than the stiff type. 4) When the angular displacement-torque curve of the shoulder joint was compared between the stiff type and the compliant type, the stiff type showed a markedly decreased torque in the reverse phase from flexion to extension. In contrast, the compliant type showed an increased torque. These results indicate that 1) SSC (i.e. elastic energy utilization, muscle potentiation and stretch-reflex, etc.) may play an important role during ball throwing, and that 2) an apparent "stiff spring" action of the upper limbs during the pre-stretch phase may prevent beneficial utilization of SSC, therefore causing decreased torque in the reverse phase.
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  • Banjou Sasaki
    Type: Article
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 153-167
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    A study was conducted to measure the extent of junior high school students' adjustment to physical education classes. Analysis was conducted on 459 male and 297 female junior high school students. First a scale to measure the extent was developed, which consisted of 14 items and two sub-categorized factors: "intention of solidarity," and "adjustment to physical education classes". The reliability was assured by Cronbach's a, corrected item-total correlation and the test-retest method,and the criterion-related validity was also supported by comparing the scale score with the physical competance test developed by Okazawa et al. (1996), with satisfying results for both. Next, based on the averages of the created measure's two sub-scales score, male and female junior high school students were classified respectively into the following four types of adjustment to physical education classes: the first type was named "solidarity-adjustment", the second type "peer interaction-mal-adjustment", the third type "avoiding unity-maladjustment", and the fourth type "at-one's-own-pace-adjustment". The psychological features of these types were considered by comparing their respective stress levels during physical education classes with the psychological stress response test developed by Sasaki (2000). The following results were obtained: 1) Male and female junior high school students who had adapted themselves to physical education classes comprised about 50% of the whole, respectively. Their lower stress response test scores suggested that they could tackle physical education classes substantiality. 2) On the other hand, there were also comparatively many male and female junior high school students who tended to avoid cooperative activity in their physical education classes. These students comprised about 30% of the total. Furthermore, their remarkably high stress level suggested that they had lapsed into lack of motivation to physical education classes. We then considered the problem of how physical education classes could be developed to accommodate this group.
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  • Shinji Takahashi, Youichi Hayashi, Takahiko Nishijima
    Type: Article
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 169-180
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to examine the validity of the system dynamics (SD) model of expired gasdynamics during incremental tests, individually. In modeling, it was assumed that (1) the increment of exercise intensity follows the test time, (2) the behavior of oxygen uptake (VO_2) and lactate (La) depend on exercise intensity, (3) CO_2 output (VCO_2) is the sum of metabolic VCO_2 that stems from increased VO_2 and VCO_2 generated by buffering La and (4) ventilation (V_E) is the sum 0f ventilation and hyperventilation that depends on La. The validity of the model was examined by (a) determination coefficient (r^2) as a fit index of simulated V_E, VO_2, VCO_2 and La to measured them, (b) equivalence consisting of the correlation coefficient (r) and paired t test between simulated and measured data at the anaerobic threshold (AT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Seven male subjects performed two protocol types of incremental tests to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer (TEST I, TEST II). The measurements in TEST I were used for modeling, and TEST II measurements for establishing the validity criteria of the model. In all subjects, _the fit index of the simulated V_E, VO_2, VCO_2 and La was high (r^2 = more than 0.954. P<.05). Correlation coefficients of simulated VO_2, % VO_2max and Watt at AT and RCP were respectively high (P<.05), and mean differences between simulated and measured VO_2, % VO_2max and Watt at AT and RCP were not statistically significant. These results indicated that the SD model of expired gas dynamics during incremental testing was valid. In conclusion, it is suggested that individual aerobic fitness can be analytically evaluated using SD modeling with incremental test measures.
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  • Yasunori Morioka, Shizuo Ito, Takashi Mochida, Keiichi Ohba, Takako Ha ...
    Type: Article
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 181-190
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was conducted to clarify the relationship between anaerobic power estimated by blood lactate movement during intermittent running test (Maximal Anaerobic Running Test: MART) and 400-m sprint time. The subjects were male sprinters (SPR: n=4), middle-distance runners (MID: n=4) and decathletes (DEC: n=4), and the three groups had all established equivalent records in the 400-rn race. The MART consisted of a variable number of 20-s runs on a treadmill with a 100-s recovery between the runs. The runs were performed on a 4° incline. After 40-s recovery, ear-lobe blood samples were taken and blood lactate concentrations were analyzed. The first run was performed at 250 m/min. The velocity of the treadmill was increased by 25 m/min for each consecutive run until volitional exhaustion. The power requirement associated with the absolute value of blood lactate (La) and relative value of peak blood lactate (PBLa) were determined from the La or PBLa vs power curve by linear interpolation from the two consecutive La values which were above and below the desired value. The results are summarized as follows: 1) La and PBLa of SPR showed the highest value, and MID indicated the lowest value during MART. Consequently, SPR had a higher PBLa (p<0.05), and a lower P3mM (p<0.05) and P5mM (p<0.05) than MID. 2) Both the maximal power (Pmax) and power estimated at 60% of PBLa (P60% La) in the MART was negatively correlated with 400-m race time (r=-0.662, r=-0.652, P<0.05). These results indicate that the MART is a valid test for estimating 400-m running performance and that P60%La is an important index for 400-m running.
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  • Yayoi Izaki, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
    Type: Article
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 191-206
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    A study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of dance pieces from the viewpoint of the imagery communicated through two pieces of modern dance, "Requiem" and "Nocturne", which were choreographed by the author and won a prize in a national dance contest. In order to determine the imagery characteristics, the 46 semantic differential scales used in the study by Zukawa et al. (1980) were used. The dance imagery was investigated through factor analysis applied to a 46 × 46 correlation matrix obtained from an experiment in which 49 female subjects (36 high school students, 10 college students, and 3 experts) were asked to respond to two dance pieces with 46 semantic scales. The following results were obtained. 1. In "Requiem", the following 14 factors were extracted: aesthetics, vividness, dynamics, harmony, tensity, emotional distance, difficulty, attitude,delicacy, regularity, originality, liveliness, spatial distance, sensation. 2. In "Noeturne", the following 13 factors were extracted: dynamics, emotion, aesthetics, vividness, harmony, tensity, rhythmicity, spatial distance, originality, distance, acuteness, attitude, delicacy. 3. These extracted factors were classified into three image domains-sense domain, sensibility domain, and feeling domain-which were assumed to be constructs of the imagery. These three domains were independent of each other in each of the pieces, and similarity in the three domains between the two pieces was investigated using canonical correlation coefficients. High similarity was found in the sense domain between the two pieces, and low similarity in the sensibility domain; there was no degree of similarity in the feeling domain. It was concluded that the uniqueness of "Requiem", which is a direct expression of sadness, was realized by movements suggesting regularity, liveliness, and difficulty. The uniqueness of "Nocturne", which expresses a mind journey in the darkness of night, was realized by movements suggesting emotion, acuteness and rhythmicity.
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  • Kunio Aoki
    Type: Article
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 207-223
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study was designed to clarify the sports value consciousness of high school students and the factors related to sports value consciousness of high school athletes. The data were obtained through questionnaires distributed to 2,461 (1,293 males and 1,168 females) high school students, and ANOVA and a multiple regression model were applied for data analysis. It was found that: 1) The range of mean scores for each item related to sports value consciousness was 3.1-4.4 for both males and females. 2) ANOVA showed that high school athletes had significantly higher scores for "value of sport". "excellence of sportsmen", and "nobility of sport" than high school students participating in culture-oriented clubs or not attending clubs. Males had significantly higher scores for the value of sport than females. Females had significantly higher scores for nobility of sport than the males. 3) Multiple regression analysis (path analysis), performed to clarify the effects of 11 factors on Sports value consciousness of male high school athletes showed that "attitude/consciousness towards athletic sports (β=0.49)" and "adjustment to athletic clubs (β=0.23)" were significantly related to sports value consciousness. "Adjustment to athletic clubs (β=0.39)", "adjustment to school (β=0.19)" and "period participating in athletic clubs (β=0.11)" were significantly related to "attitude/consciousness towards athletic sports". "Hassles in the athletic club (β=-0.18)", "daily hassles (β=-0.09)", self-competency in the athletic club (β=0.38)", "PSS in the athletic club (β=0.27)", "PSS outside the athletic club (β=-0.12)", and "coping skills (β=0.13)", were significantly related to adjustment to athletic clubs. "Adjustment to athletic clubs (β=0.28)", "hassles in the athletic club (β=0.09)", "self-competency in the athletic club (β=0.07)", "self-efficacy (β=0.13)", and "coping skills (β=0.24)" were significantly related to adjustment to the school. 4) For female high school athletes, the factors significantly related to sports value consciousness were attitude/consciousness towards athletic sports (β=0.48)" and "adjustment to athletic clubs (β=0.20)". The factors significantly related to attitude/consciousness towards athletic sports were "adjustment to athletic clubs (β=0.26)", "adjustment to school (β=0.30)" and "period participating IN athletic clubs (β=0.11)". "Hassles in the athletic club (β=-0.18)", "self-competency in the athletic club (β=0.40)", "PSS in the athletic club (β=0.34)", "PSS outside the athletic club (β=-0.16)", and "coping skills (β=0.16)" were significantly related to adjustment to athletic clubs. "Adjustment to athletic clubs (β=0.36)", "hassles in the athletic club (β=0.15)" "self-competency in the athletic club (β=0.12)", "self-efficacy (β=0.23)", "PSS outside the athletic club(β=0.08)", and "coping skills (β=0.25) )" were significantly related to adjustment to school.
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  • Ken Tokizawa, Masaki Mizuno, Yoshio Nakamura, Isao Muraoka
    Type: Article
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 225-235
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study investigated changes in forearm blood flow and cardiovascular parameters during concomitant forearm and calf exercise with low-pressure occlusion (LPO) using a calf cuff. Eight subjects performed four trials: light (20% MVC) dynamic handgrip exercise (HG), handgrip exercise and plantar flexion (HG + PF_50, PF_50 = isometric, 50% MVC) and concomitant exercise with low-pressure calf occlusion (HG + PF_50 + LPO, HG + PF_20 + LPO). LPO was achieved by inflation of the cuff immediately distal to the knee to a pressure of 90 torr. Forearm blood flow (FBF), mean arterial pressure(MAP), heart rate (HR) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) were measured during each trial. In the HG + PF_50 + LPO trial, FBF and FVC in the working arm were significantly lower than in other trials (p<0.01), MAP and HR were significantly higher than in HG and HG + PF_50 (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between HG, HG + PF_50 + LPO and HG + PF_50 + LPO in any of the measured parameters. These results indicate that the metaboreflex induced by intense plantar flexion with low-pressure occlusion appears to be a major contributor to the decrease in forearm blood flow during combined exercise.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 237-239
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 240-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 241-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 242-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 243-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 243-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages App11-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (68K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages App12-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (68K)
  • Type: Cover
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (93K)
  • Type: Cover
    2003 Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: March 10, 2003
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (93K)
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