A study was conducted to measure the extent of junior high school students' adjustment to physical education classes. Analysis was conducted on 459 male and 297 female junior high school students. First a scale to measure the extent was developed, which consisted of 14 items and two sub-categorized factors: "intention of solidarity," and "adjustment to physical education classes". The reliability was assured by Cronbach's a, corrected item-total correlation and the test-retest method,and the criterion-related validity was also supported by comparing the scale score with the physical competance test developed by Okazawa et al. (1996), with satisfying results for both. Next, based on the averages of the created measure's two sub-scales score, male and female junior high school students were classified respectively into the following four types of adjustment to physical education classes: the first type was named "solidarity-adjustment", the second type "peer interaction-mal-adjustment", the third type "avoiding unity-maladjustment", and the fourth type "at-one's-own-pace-adjustment". The psychological features of these types were considered by comparing their respective stress levels during physical education classes with the psychological stress response test developed by Sasaki (2000). The following results were obtained: 1) Male and female junior high school students who had adapted themselves to physical education classes comprised about 50% of the whole, respectively. Their lower stress response test scores suggested that they could tackle physical education classes substantiality. 2) On the other hand, there were also comparatively many male and female junior high school students who tended to avoid cooperative activity in their physical education classes. These students comprised about 30% of the total. Furthermore, their remarkably high stress level suggested that they had lapsed into lack of motivation to physical education classes. We then considered the problem of how physical education classes could be developed to accommodate this group.
A study was conducted to examine the validity of the system dynamics (SD) model of expired gasdynamics during incremental tests, individually. In modeling, it was assumed that (1) the increment of exercise intensity follows the test time, (2) the behavior of oxygen uptake (VO_2) and lactate (La) depend on exercise intensity, (3) CO_2 output (VCO_2) is the sum of metabolic VCO_2 that stems from increased VO_2 and VCO_2 generated by buffering La and (4) ventilation (V_E) is the sum 0f ventilation and hyperventilation that depends on La. The validity of the model was examined by (a) determination coefficient (r^2) as a fit index of simulated V_E, VO_2, VCO_2 and La to measured them, (b) equivalence consisting of the correlation coefficient (r) and paired t test between simulated and measured data at the anaerobic threshold (AT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Seven male subjects performed two protocol types of incremental tests to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer (TEST I, TEST II). The measurements in TEST I were used for modeling, and TEST II measurements for establishing the validity criteria of the model. In all subjects, _the fit index of the simulated V_E, VO_2, VCO_2 and La was high (r^2 = more than 0.954. P<.05). Correlation coefficients of simulated VO_2, % VO_2max and Watt at AT and RCP were respectively high (P<.05), and mean differences between simulated and measured VO_2, % VO_2max and Watt at AT and RCP were not statistically significant. These results indicated that the SD model of expired gas dynamics during incremental testing was valid. In conclusion, it is suggested that individual aerobic fitness can be analytically evaluated using SD modeling with incremental test measures.
A study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of dance pieces from the viewpoint of the imagery communicated through two pieces of modern dance, "Requiem" and "Nocturne", which were choreographed by the author and won a prize in a national dance contest. In order to determine the imagery characteristics, the 46 semantic differential scales used in the study by Zukawa et al. (1980) were used. The dance imagery was investigated through factor analysis applied to a 46 × 46 correlation matrix obtained from an experiment in which 49 female subjects (36 high school students, 10 college students, and 3 experts) were asked to respond to two dance pieces with 46 semantic scales. The following results were obtained. 1. In "Requiem", the following 14 factors were extracted: aesthetics, vividness, dynamics, harmony, tensity, emotional distance, difficulty, attitude,delicacy, regularity, originality, liveliness, spatial distance, sensation. 2. In "Noeturne", the following 13 factors were extracted: dynamics, emotion, aesthetics, vividness, harmony, tensity, rhythmicity, spatial distance, originality, distance, acuteness, attitude, delicacy. 3. These extracted factors were classified into three image domains-sense domain, sensibility domain, and feeling domain-which were assumed to be constructs of the imagery. These three domains were independent of each other in each of the pieces, and similarity in the three domains between the two pieces was investigated using canonical correlation coefficients. High similarity was found in the sense domain between the two pieces, and low similarity in the sensibility domain; there was no degree of similarity in the feeling domain. It was concluded that the uniqueness of "Requiem", which is a direct expression of sadness, was realized by movements suggesting regularity, liveliness, and difficulty. The uniqueness of "Nocturne", which expresses a mind journey in the darkness of night, was realized by movements suggesting emotion, acuteness and rhythmicity.
This study investigated changes in forearm blood flow and cardiovascular parameters during concomitant forearm and calf exercise with low-pressure occlusion (LPO) using a calf cuff. Eight subjects performed four trials: light (20% MVC) dynamic handgrip exercise (HG), handgrip exercise and plantar flexion (HG + PF_50, PF_50 = isometric, 50% MVC) and concomitant exercise with low-pressure calf occlusion (HG + PF_50 + LPO, HG + PF_20 + LPO). LPO was achieved by inflation of the cuff immediately distal to the knee to a pressure of 90 torr. Forearm blood flow (FBF), mean arterial pressure(MAP), heart rate (HR) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) were measured during each trial. In the HG + PF_50 + LPO trial, FBF and FVC in the working arm were significantly lower than in other trials (p<0.01), MAP and HR were significantly higher than in HG and HG + PF_50 (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between HG, HG + PF_50 + LPO and HG + PF_50 + LPO in any of the measured parameters. These results indicate that the metaboreflex induced by intense plantar flexion with low-pressure occlusion appears to be a major contributor to the decrease in forearm blood flow during combined exercise.