Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 49 , Issue 1
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages App2-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages App3-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Kichiji Kimua
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 1-18
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical education was introduced into schools supplying pupils fbr the University of Tokyo and how it was developed at those schools. The fundamental sources for the study were documents among historical materials detailing the history of the Imperial University of Tokyo and among the archives of the University of Tokyo. The findings were as follows : 1) Nanko asked the Ministry of Education to construct a playground in September 1871, and this was constructed in the following year. The Emperor Meiji visited Nanko on May 6, 1872 and viewed the playground, and Nanko seems to have had gymnastic apparatus used for the French system of military gymnastics. 2) The timetable of each class at Nanko included gymnastics for 30 minutes from 9 a.m. to 9 : 30 a.m. every day, and furthermore Nanko recommended students to do other exercises and walking as extracurricular activities. Most gym teachers employed had once worked for the Primary School attached to Numazu Military Academy. They seem to have studied the French system of military gymnastics in the late Edo period. A gymnastics system similar to that of the French at the Attached School had been practiced at Nanko. 3) Although gymnastics was a supplementary subject at Kaiseigakko, and later at Tokyo Kaiseigakko, they placed stress on it and in fact regulated the timetables so that most courses had 30 minutes of gymnastics from 9 : 30 a.m. to 10 : 00 a.m. every day and students took gymnastic exercises under the direction of the gym teacher. At the same time provision was also made for students to wear European clothes and shoes, which were thought to be more convenient for gym and other classes. 4) The construcion of new school buildings at Kaiseigakko in August 1873 included a new playground with exercise apparatus. Judging from the blueprint, the apparatus was evidently that of the French system of military gymnastics, and designed by a person whose knowledge excelled that in textbooks of the French system : 'Shinpei-taijyutu-kyoren'. 5) The exercises displayed under the direction of the gym teachers Y. Kariya, S. Takino and K. Fukushima in the presence of the Emperor, who attended the opening ceremony at Kaiseigakko on October 9, 1873, were ko-hi (leaping), tesuri (parallel bars) and yagura (platform). 6) The discharge of gym teachers at Tokyo Kaiseigakko between January and Feburary 1877 indicated that this preceded the measure that students taking the preparatory course for the University of Tokyo, established by consolidation of Tokyo Kaiseigakko and Tokyo Igakko, were to be taught gymnastics by Taiso-denshujyo (the National Normal School of Gymnastics). 7) Kaiseigakko and Tokyo Kaiseigakko played the role of translating and publishing book about gymnastics, manufacturing gymnastic instruments such as a dumbbells, and repairing sporting goods such as rubber balls. The traditional function introducing Western Culture since the Shogunate Institute of Foreign Studies such as Tenmonnkata, Banshowagegoyoh, Yogakusho and Bansho Shirabesho could not help being expanded in the above schools so far as modern industries had scarcely developed. 8) Gymnastics was also a supplementary subject at Dai-ichi Daigakku Igakko. When it was going to construct a playground and exercise apparatus, Dai-ichiban Chugaku (formerly Nanko) helped it and allowed some staff members of Dai-ichi Daigakku Igakko to inspect the playground and apparatus at Dai-ichiban Chugaku and lent them the blueprint. Igakko (formerly Dai-ichi Daigakku Igakko) had gym teachers concurrently holding similar positions at Kaiseigakko. Thus the successors of Nanko which had been pioneers in introducing gymnastics into modern schools in Japan had often helped those of Tohko (the Medical School).
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  • Hideki Toji, Masahiro Kaneko
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 19-27
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of force, velocity and power relations of elbow flexion in elderly people. The subjects were 22 elderly men (aged 61-77 y) and 19 college male students (ages 20-24 y). Using a modified Wilkie's apparatus, the force, velocity and resultant power output by the elbow flexor muscles were measured, and the force-velocity relations were calculated according to Hill's equation : (F + a) (V + b)=(Fmax + a) b. Cross-sectional area (CSA-ante) of the upper arm was estimated from the square of the muscle thickness measured by an ultrasonic apparatus. The force-velocity curve for the elderly group (G-aged) was found to be less concave (larger a/Fmax) than that of the college students (G-young). The maximal power values, which appeared at an Fmax under about 34% in both age groups, were 107.8 W in G-aged and 155.0 W in G-young. There were significant differences (G-aged < G-young) in Pmax as well as in Fmax and Vmax. The ratios of Fmax/CSA-ante, Pmax/CSA-ante and Vmax/upper arm length were also significantly lower in G-aged than in G-young. The half time to reach Fmax (1/2RFD) was significantly longer in G-aged (117.4 ms) than in G-young (93.1 ms). Compared with G-young, G-aged showed a greater reduction in Pmax (69.3%) than in Fmax (76.0%) and Vmax (83.5%). In CSA-ante, however, no significant difference was observed between the two age groups, suggesting a considerable effect of neuromuscular function. From these results, it was suggested that the ability to develop muscular power may be reduced more functionally than morphologically with increasing age.
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  • Koji Fukuda, Akira Ito
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 29-39
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Sprinters are often coached to increase their sprint running velocity by minimizing the horizontal deceleration force during the first half of the foot contact phase. The present study was undertaken to clarify the relationship between changes in the horizontal velocity of the body's center of gravity (CG) during the foot contact phase and sprint running velocity. The subjects were 26 male sprinters (100 m personal best record : 10.27-11.50 s). The experiments were carried out on an allweather track into which a force platform was planted. Subjects performed sprint running at their maximal effort. The ground reaction forces were recorded and the subjects were videotaped from the side (100 fps). The horizontal distance from the toe to the CG at the moment of foot touch-down and foot release showed no significant correlation with the maximal sprint running velocity. The duration of deceleration decreased (r=-0.517, p<0.01) and that of acceleration showed a tendency to decrease (r=-0.385, p=0.0519) with the increase of the maximal sprint running velocity. The peak forces of deceleration and acceleration increased (r=0.542, p<0.01 ; r=0.442, p<0.05) with the maximal sprint running velocity. The rate of deceleration and acceleration of the CG during the foot contact phase calculated from the impulse of the horizontal ground reaction force showed almost a constant value despite the big difference in the maximal sprint running velocity. The present results suggest that reducing the rate of CG deceleration during the foot contact phase would not improve the maximal sprint running velocity. The ability to develop a higher acceleration force to the ground moving faster to the backward relative to the body's center of mass during the shorter foot contact phase is probably a major factor in determining the maximal sprint running velocity.
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  • Tokuru Yamamoto
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 41-49
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 51-79
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 80-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 81-83
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 84-88
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 89-94
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 95-96
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 96-101
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 102-110
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 111-113
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 114-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 116-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 117-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 118-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 118-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages App4-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages App5-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages App6-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages App7-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: January 10, 2004
    Released: September 27, 2017
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