A study was conducted to assess the social skills of junior high school students in physical education classes, and to investigate how students use their skills, based on a comparison of sex, grade, and differences in adjustment to physical education classes. First, 41 social skill items were collected from previous studies, and then factor analysis was conducted on data from 797 junior high school students. As a result, four factors related to social skills in physical education classes were identified: "maintaining norms skills", "expressing skills", "empathizing skills", and "asking-for-distributing skills". The reliability was confirmed using Cronbach's α. Furthermore, the content validity and the construct validity were verified as satisfactory. Next, the usage of the four social skills by the students in physical education classes was considered, and it was found that: (1) Male students tended to use assertive skills predominantly, whereas female students tended to use maintaining friendship skills. (2) Upper grade students showed a tendency not to use social skills as much as lower grade students. (3) Students who adjusted to physical education classes had a better grasp of social skills during the classes than students showing maladjustment.
A study was conducted to specify the joint having greatest influence on drop jump (DJ) performance, and to investigate the factors involved in improving muscle output related to posture during DJ. Eight male athletes performed DJ from a height of 30 cm. The jumps were recorded using video cameras, and the ground reaction force was measured by a force plate simultaneously. There were significant correlations between DJ-index and mean joint power at the hip joint in Ecc. phase (r=0.725, p<0.05), mean joint power at the knee joint in Con. phase (r=0.730, p<0.05) and mean joint torque at the ankle joint in Con. phase (r=0.736, p<0.05), respectively. There was a significant correlation between mean joint power at the hip joint in Ecc. phase and mean joint torque at the ankle joint in Con. phase (r=0.912, p<0.001). At the instant of contact, higher activation of the biceps femoris group indicated significantly higher values for pelvic and pelvic-thigh angles than lower activation of the biceps femoris group. These results suggest that the function of the hip joint in Ecc. phase influences DJ performance and function of the ankle joint in Con. phase. Also, to improve the function of the biceps femoris in Ecc. phase, it is effective to incline the pelvis anteriorly at the instant of contact.
The purpose of this study was to examine the physical fitness and dynamic balancing ability of middle-aged and elderly women living in the community. One hundred fifty-eight subjects were divided into two groups: 57 (aged 63.5±8.9 yr) who had experienced falls ("fallers") and 101 (aged 61.9±7.0 yr) who had not ("nonfallers"). There were no differences in BMI, %Fat or BMD between the two groups. The fallers had significantly poorer grip strength, knee extension strength, stepping and reaction time than the nonfallers. The knee flexion strength, dorsal flexion strength and plantar flexion strength of the fallers were about 94% those of the nonfallers. There were no significant differences in flexibility and balance between the fallers and the nonfallers. The results obtained from forward and backward induced-sway balance tests for the fallers were inferior to those of the nonfallers, and the height to which the fallers lifted a leg in the upright position was significantly higher than that of the nonfallers. It is concluded that lower limb strength, agility, kinesthesia and dynamic balancing ability in fallers are inferior to those in nonfallers.
A study was conducted to clarify the effects of running long jump practice in physical education classes for 11-or 12-year-old elementary school children. The subjects were divided into two groups: a training group (9 boys and 8 girls) and a control group (10 boys and 12 girls). The training group performed long jump practice over a period of 2 weeks (5 physical education classes), while the control group performed gymnastics practice. The jumping distance and 50-m sprint time were measured in both groups to clarify the performance before and after the corresponding period. In addition, the training group underwent measurement of approach running distance, approach running speed, take-off leg and jumping motion by angular kinematics. It was found that the jumping distance of the training group increased significantly for both boys and girls. However, no significant changes were found in the control group. After training, the approach running distance in the training group decreased significantly for both boys and girls. After training, there were significant positive correlations between the change in jumping distance and the change in approach running speed in the training group in the sections from 5 to 0 m before take-off in both boys and girls. In addition to the girls, there were significant positive correlations between change in the jumping distance and the change in approach running speed in the sections from 15 to 10 m and from 10 to 5 m before take-off. For boys in the training group, the relationship between the increase in jumping distance and the speed at touch down was significantly positively correlated with take-off. For girls in the training group, there was a significant positive correlation between the increase in jumping distance and the speed at touch down. From these results, it is suggested that long jump practice for 2 weeks (5 times) would improve the jumping distance of sixth-grade elementary school children.
This study aimed to determine the differences between teachers and students in appropriate composed elements for effective physical education classes in high schools, their question items and factors, and to determine the factor structure of the classes from a quantitative viewpoint. Twentynine high schools in F prefecture were selected at random, and data from 99 physical education teachers and 99 students from each school were used for analysis. A questionnaire consisted of 40 items selected from four hypothetical elements after examining the content validity and some presurveys. The questionnaire was judged to have high reliability. It was determined that teachers considered "outcome" and "way of learning" as appropriate elements for an effective physical education class to a greater extent than students, and that their judgment of propriety differed somewhat according to each element and item content. The following five factors were interpreted from factor analysis: outcome, enjoyment, cooperation, learning social attitudes, and learning environment, and it was confirmed that the degree of the relationship between the factors differed. Moreover, it was inferred that among these five factors, "outcome", "learning social attitudes", and "learning environment" were considered to be more appropriate by teachers than by students, whereas students considered "enjoyment" to be more appropriate.