Item Response Theory (IRT) was originally developed for creating tests in multiple-choice form, and recently has become more popular in psychology and sociology. In sport science, IRT is used especially for pass-or-fail tests of motor-skill performance. This communication presents a more fundamental understanding of IRT in relation to sport science and associated areas, and proposes an application of IRT to pass-or-fail tests of motor-skill performance. Our conclusions are: (1) Reliability has to be investigated from an objective viewpoint, or from the stability of pass-or-fail measures, but not from the standard error of estimated ability. (2) Greater use of the ordinal scale model of IRT is recommended instead of a dichotomous one for a pass-or-fail test, because a person's rating cannot be strictly dichotomous; it must be graded. (3) The two-parameter model, or the Rasch model, is recommended because in a motor-skill performance test, fewer parameters are stable, and the level of certainty is different from that of any written test. (4) Items with differential item-functioning should not be included in a test, because they cannot measure ability fairly. (5) Although missing values are sometimes found in motor-ability measures and observations, no attempt to fill in the values based on likelihood should be made using incomplete data sets. More attention must be paid to the method of collecting data.
Various indices for evaluating achievement ability in activities of daily living (ADL) have been developed in previous studies. Many of them were designed for the dependent elderly, considering their functional level and disease characteristics. The availability of ADL assessment has now been expanded to the independent elderly, and ADL indices have also been used for screening in fitness tests. ADL assessment has been applied over a wide range of elderly, from the bedridden to the independent. However, it has not been sufficiently systematized as a way of assessing physical function in the elderly. Although the elderly population is conceptually classified into three groupsbedridden, partially dependent and independent-based on functional level, it is very difficult to evaluate the ADL ability of these different groups using the same activities because the range of their functional levels is too wide. In order to establish ADL assessment as a useful method for evaluating physical function in the elderly, an ADL index for each elderly group should first be developed. Then a unified ADL index that can be applied to all elderly, from the bedridden to the independent, should be developed. Finally, an ADL index that assumes a unidimensional scale based on the difficulty of ADL activities, may become available. This review examines the utility and availability of a unidimensional ADL scale as an assessment tool for evaluating the physical function of the elderly, considering the results of our previous studies.
The purposes of this study were to verify the validity of the psychological stress model in high school athletes, and to investigate the relationship between each variable of the psychological stress process. The subjects were 449 first and second year high school athletes (245 males and 204 females). They were required to complete a questionnaire that consisted of a stressor scale for his/her performance, a cognitive appraisal scale (2 subscales: influence of stressors, and controllability), a stress-coping scale for high school athletes (5 subscales: problem solving, avoidance, catharsis, distractive recreation, and positive thought), a stress response scale for high school athletes (5 subscales: depressive-anxious feeling, irritated-angry feeling, restlessness, helplessness, and withdrawal), and a motivated participation scale for athletic club activity. First, the validity and reliability of the cognitive appraisal scale and motivated participation scale in athletic club activity were verified through factor analysis. Second, hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted assuming the following process "stressor → cognitive appraisal → stress-coping → stress response". The results verified the validity of the psychological stress model in high school athletes, and found that there were two patterns of psychological stress process. One was "influence of stressors → emotion-focused coping → increasing of stress response" and the other was "controllability → problem-focused coping → decreasing of stress response". Finally, the psychological stress process, from stressor to motivated participation in athletic club activity, was analyzed as an index of athlete adaptation. As a consequence, it was shown that the relationship between cognitive appraisal and stress-coping had a positive effect on motivation in athletic club activity, and it was clarified that actual athlete adaptation followed an almost linear course through the steps of the psychological stress model.
We investigated the effects of strength training on the force-velocity relationship and muscle power in aged men. Fifteen male volunteers, ranging in age from 65 to 78 years, were divided into three groups. The LG group (n=6) performed two sets of maximal repetitions at a relatively low intensity load of 15-20 RM and the HG group (n=5) performed three sets of maximal repetitions using a relatively high intensity load of 8-10 RM. The control subjects (CG group, n=4) performed no special exercises. The training was performed by elbow flexion using a dumbbell-curl exercise 3 days a week for 10 weeks. Muscle cross-sectional area was estimated by measuring muscle thickness with an ultrasonic apparatus. Our results showed that the force-velocity curves in the two training groups were shifted in a direction away from the origin, though Vmax did not change significantly in either of the groups. In the HG group, significant increases were observed in maximal isometric strength and velocity under 10% Fmax load. Despite the significant increase in Fmax, the HG group did not show a significant change in muscle cross-sectional area. The maximal power was increased significantly only in the HG group. These results suggest that high-intensity training may be necessary for increasing muscle strength and power in aged people, and that the effects of training in older adults may be more functional than morphological.
"Erlernt 1st eine Bewegung, wenn der Leib sie verstanden hat, d.h. wenn er sie seiner 'Welt' einverleibt hat, und seinen Leib bewegen heiBt immer, durch ihn hindurch auf die Dinge abzielen, ihn einer Aufforderung entsprechen lassen, die an ihn ohne den Umweg uber irgendeine Vorstellung ergeht." Mit anderen Worten, es ist nie "unser objektiver Korper, den wir bewegen, sondern stets unser phanomenaler Leib" (Merleau-Ponty 1966). Wenn auf die Problematik des Erlernens von Bewegungen eingegangen werden soil, ist es daher unerlaBlich, ein kinasthetisches BewuBtseinserlebnis im Sinne E. Husserls als Betrachtungsgegenstand zu setzen. Aufbauend auf die phanomenologische Methodologie von E. Husserl hat A. Kaneko dazu ein theoretisches Modell aufgestellt, mit dem die Entwicklung der kinasthetischen Vermoglichkeiten im Bewegungserlebnis beschrieben werden kann. A. Kaneko unterscheidet funf Phasen der Bewegungsformung: 1. Phase der horizontale Intentionalitat, 2. Phase der Suche, 3. Phase des zufalligen Zustandekommens, 4. Phase der Schematisierung, 5. Phase der Beherrschung (Kaneko, 2002). In der vorliegende Forschungsarbeit soil nun ein neues Verfahren zur Identifizierung der jeweiligen Phase bei der Bewegungsformung vorgestellt werden. Dazu wurden die Lernprozesse von drei Anfangern beobachtet, wie sie den Handstanduberschlag ruckwarts am Boden lernten. Es wurde ein spezifischer Fragebogen ausgearbeitet, um die kinasthetischen Vermoglichkeiten nach Kaneko (2002) zu identifizieren. Der Fragebogen wurde auBerdem fur die Unterrichtspraxis verwendet. Es konnten so die Phasen der Bewegungsformung, wie die drei Lernenden sie durchliefen, eindeutig beobachtet, belegt und identifiziert werden. Den Lernenden konnten ferner die fehlenden kinasthetischen Vermoglichkeiten als konkretes Lernziel vorgezeigt werden. In einer spateren Arbeit soil unser Fragebogen erweitert werden, so daB die Entstehung von neuen kinasthetischen Vermoglichkeiten auch in der Phase der Beherrschung erfaBt werden kann.
The purpose of this paper was to clarify the situation in the Department of Defense of Austro-Hungary, which dispatched Major Theodor von Lerch to Japan in 1910. The historical materials referred to were the official documents saved at the General Staff Office in Vienna and the articles left in Japan by von Lerch. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: (1) As a task in the General Staff Office in Vienna, von Lerch had started to study the conditions of the Army in the Far East from 1906. (2) The General Staff Office in Vienna attempted his dispatch to investigate the conditions of the army in three countries on the eve of World War I. (3) The Ministry of Defense in Austro-Hungary decided to dispatch von Lerch to Japan for the benefit of the army and his advantage in carrying out the assigned tasks. However, von Lerch himself had an interest in Japan. (4) The Ministry of Defense in Austro-Hungary communicated with the Ministry of Foreign affairs and its military attache in Japan and China, requesting that it enter into negotiations to accomplish the dispatch of von Lerch. (5) von Lerch's wish to be allowed to study on an assignment with the Japanese Army was accepted by both the Japanese and Chinese governments as a result of ten months of negotiations.
The purpose of this study was to examine recent trends in research on physical education teachers' effective feedback, and to identify future research areas of interest. Several studies have indicated that frequent teachers' affirmative, corrective and specific feedback about students' motor learning has a significant positive relationship with increases in students' formative evaluation scores in physical education classes (e.g., Takahashi, Fukami, and others 1991-1997). Teacher feedback was also found to be a useful element for improving students' motor skills and performance. In recent years qualitative research on teaching methods in physical education has become accepted as a new research approach. However, with regards to teachers' feedback it is often difficult to discern whether qualitative research has been conducted, and in studies that do include qualitative aspects it is often left unclear what type of research was conducted and what the implications of the research results might be. In this study five recent books that deal with effective teaching of research on physical education were examined, and 31 suggestions concerning teachers' effective feedback were identified. We were particularly interested in the research methods and content of those dealing with experimental research, but found that this type of research was rather limited and that the content of actual physical education classes rarely played a part in the analysis. The vast majority of suggestions concerning feedback (23) presented in the examined studies were clearly the ideas and opinions of the researcher himself. In addition, we found that most experimental studies applied quantitative and qualitative methods simultaneously (5), while none of them relied exclusively on qualitative methods. These results lead us to conclude that it is necessary to examine the effectiveness of feedback based on a set of more meaningful indicators such as appropriateness and correctness of feedback in improving students' motor skills and performance as seen from the position of both teachers and students.