Ministry of Education submitted the revised curriculum in Elementary school on 1872 and introduced gymnastics by a chart. Tokyo Normal School set up courses of instruction on May 1873, established gymnastics as a course and .practiced these activities. "Taiso sho", a book of Gymnastics translated by Mr. K. Ishibashi were published by the Ministry of Education in 1874 and this system of gymnastics was introduced at the attached elementary school to Tokyo Normal School. As the courses of instruction set up by the Tokyo Normal School were introduced in each elementary school, system of Taiso-zu (gymnastics showed by a chart) was practiced at the beginning but gradually system of Taiso-sho (Book of Gymnastics) was introduced . Gymnastics for women were rather unpopular. There were no actual practice of gymnastics in some prefecures and sometimes play and low orgonized .games were taken the place of gymnastics.
In this article, the concepts on the values of Athletics, which the students of Dai-ichi Koto Gakko had in the second stage (189697) of the controversy on the "School Spirit", are considered. The feature of this controversy can be found out in the following two points; first, the values of "speech and literary work" which had not been fully recognized among the students was asserted, and secondly it was reflected in the emphasis of "Bushido" that the victorious result of the Chino-Japanese War urged them to be aware of Japanese's own. The analysis of the concepts shows that Athlelics was commonly recognized to serve as "means" of rousing Genki (a spirit) and that Athletics as Western culture was considered as Bujutsu which had origininally meaned the traditional military arts in Japan . The results of analysing these concepts in the two stages lead us to conclude as follows ; (1) A form of the assimilation of Athletics as Western Cultuern with Japanese was to have accepted it exclusively as "arts" and not including the spritual side. Therefore, the students had recognized the ethical values of Athletics, especially the content of which were practically the morals connected with those of Bushi. (2) There was a spiritual condition of the sujects which formed such a recognition. It was "Ethos" descended from Bushi, which had functined to orient them to rouse Genki and indulged themselves in "Athleticism". (3) But, these controversies themselves clariffed that the orthodoxy on the values of Athletics had begun to be doubted.
Back strength of junior high school students were measured by the "rope" type dynamometer deviced by the author. The results obtained were here As follows : 1) Correlation between the back strength measured by the rope type dynamometer and physique are rather low than previous findings measured by the KYS type dynamometer in both sexes. 2) It was revealed that average muscle strength measured by the "rope" type dynamometer were increase in advance with age. 3) It was found that correlations between back strength measured by the rope type dynamometer, and grip, arm strength were father low than previous findings measured by the KYS type dynamometer both in elementary school pupils and junior high school students . 4) It was revealed that measurement of the back strength by the rope type dynamometer designed by the author could be used not influenced by grip and arm muscle
By using the surface electrodes to record the electromyograms of the muscles of the lower limbs, we studied the instep kick action with a soccer ball. By using an experienced player and one without experiences we came out with different results. 1. Different muscles are used. 2. Differences in the pattern of action potensial were noted. Largely noticed was the stableness of the thigh-joints and the ankle-joints. The kick was given with the extension of knee-joints. The main muscles used in this movement were m. quadriceps femories and the adducent muscles. With the unexperienced, unstableness Was found at the thigh-joints and ankle-joints contoary to those of the former.
The pose and the variation of the center of gravity during sarjant jump were studied by movie reels. The muscles used and its movement were examiend by the electromyogram, the jump power by the strain gauge. The poower to go up is most high between one third and one half in the first half of the jump and it is due to the extension of the knee-joints and the thigh-joints. The ankle joints do not have much importance as thonght to be. Main muscles which move in extension of the thigh-joints are m, gluteus medius and m. gluteus maximus. M. vastus mediales is principal mover in extension of the knee-joints.
The backward long circle on the high iron bar was analysed using 16mm movie fiIms. It was revealed that the swing movement was unsuccessful in case the posture was changed scarecely, and successful in case the posture was changed adequately and timely. Then comparing the movements in success and in unsuccess, the change of a posture for success was studied from the view point of kinesiology.
A comparative study of psychogalvanic responses to the image of gymnastic performance and also to watching movie of it among skilled gymnasts, beginner and unexperienced subject. The results of these experiments ,were as following : The skilled gymnasts responded with characteristic rhythmical wave when they imagine their gymnastic performance, and also they observed the movie of the performance, while the beginners and the unexperienced subjects did not remarkable.
The industrial fatigue was investigated by twenty items of physical conditions, with special respect to the subjective symptom. Papers of questionaire were collected from 2073 workers of Nagano Railway Plants; who were considered comparatively heavy muscular workers. The results were Classified by ages and types of work and discussed from the view point of preventing industrial injury