In this article, the latter period (1905-1908) of the controversies on the "school spirit" are considered. This period consisted of two stages; the third and the fourth, which have the common chracter; And then can be treated as a whole, A noticiable feature of this period is the advocacy of "Individualism". The advocators recognized the importance of one's inner life and regarded "Athletics" as only a matter of taste, and denied their value as the means of fostering "school spirit". Thus, the polarization in the recognition was brought about among the students. It also means that two types of student, totalitarian And individualistic, clearly came into existence when the latter type had newly appeared. Roughly speaking, the former corresponds to "Athletic Club Type" and the latter to "Cultural club Type". These two types became the basic ones and have been running through the history of student.
The aim of this study was to clarify the following two points. First, to examine the relationship between personality traits and preference of different sports activities. This is a cross-cultural study of Flanagan's and the method of this study is nearly same of him. In the second, to compare personality traits of one who prefer to some sports with beginner of the same sports club. Results are in summary as follows: 1. Students who prefer to baseball and basketball possess most positive personality traits. 2. Students whe prefer to baseball or basketball are ranked next. .3. Students who prefer to badminton possess least positive personality traits. 4. Tendencies as above exist among beginners of baseball, basketball and badminton clubs as well.
There are various factors which effect the physical growth. Among them more important ones are heredity, environment (natural and social), nutrition and physical activities. We studied how these factors contribut to the physical growth, and reported here the results which were obtained from the measurements on physique, physical functions and motor abilities. The results obtained here were as follows: 1. physique Both boys and girls in big cities are superior to rural areas in height. Those in smaller in body mechanism than in big cities. That is average type between big cities and agicultural or fishing districts. Those in farm districts are superior to students of big cities in width but inferior in height. 2. Physical functions and motor abilities Those in big cities are superior to students of rural areasin vital capacity in I00 meter dash and sargeant jump but ,inferior in strength of back in pull ups. Those in small cities are generally average type between two districts.
Youth fitness of Formosa's and Japanese boys and girls were tested by professor Liu and his assistants from April to June, 1959. The subjects of Formosa and the Takasago tribe were 1,449 and 169 respectively. The differences of youth fitness between Japanese and theirs show in the following table.[table] As Hans Kraus reported, we shall have to second his opinion that human being can not maintain the suitable motor ability for his social life without the big muscle activities sufficiently.
Back-muscle-strength of senior high school students were measured by the "rope" type dynamometer deviced by the author. The relations among the back muscle-strength, physical fitness and physique,. were studied. The resutls obtained were here as follows : 1) Correlations between back-muscle-strength and height and weight were rather high especially in 15 and 16 years of boys, and chest-of girth are highest in 16 and 17 years of boys. 2) Correlations between back-muscle-strength and height are high in 15 and 16 years of girls and, highest correlations between back-muscle-strength and height were shown in 15 and 16 years of girls, and weight and chest of girth in 16 and 17 of girls. 3) Back-muscle-strength measured by rope type dynamometer were increase in advance with age in case of boys but in case of girls early maturity stage were shown in back-muscle-strength. 4) It was revealed that there is no significant correlations between the back-muscle-strength measured by the rope type dynamometer and other back-muscle-strength measured by KYS type dynamoter in both sexes.
A comparative study of psychogalvanic phenomenon in Roman Olymic Athletes eIicited by engrams of their own gymnastic performance reproduced by imagination were mode. The results obtained here were as follows : 1) The skilled gymnasts responded with remarkably and showed rhythmical wave according to their tension and relaxation when they imagine their gymnastic performance 2) It was revealed that level of performance were supposed by observing obtained psychogalvanic phenomenon
As I think that aesthetical expression of dance have the intimate connection for balance of partial body posture, center of gravity during dance were studied. Body movement in each portion of dance for lower grade students having many movements are independent. There are many movements keeping balance and stretching arms and legs extremely in the dance for higher grade students.
The muscular endurance has been tested on the arm ergometer and the straingauge tensiometer together with recording of the electromyograms from the acting muscles. The test consisted of four different procedures and the results were discussed from view point of physiological and psychological limits of performance. 1. The subject contracted the arm flexor on the ergometer with the load of 1/3 of the maximal strength once a second until an exhaution. It was found that electromyograms of the flexor muscles were gradually increased in voltage and frequency in later stage of work. 2. The subject contracted the arm flexor isometrically against the horizontal bar attached with a straingauge apparatus once two seconds with his maximal effort until an exhaustion. It was found that the electomyograms of the arm flexors were increased remarkably in later stage together with an apparently decreased strength. 3. In later stage of the endurance test on the straingauge tensiometer, the subject was given a sound of "shot" of a starting pistol or a sound of "shout" by himself. It was found that the maximal strength recovered up to the initial level of the stregth and sometimes over the initial level of the strength together with an increase of nervous discharge to the arm flexors. 4. The maximal strength was measured once two seconds after the administration of Amphetamine Sulphate until an almost exhaustion on the same subject. It was worthy to note that the elevated level of the maximal strength after the administration of the drug was almost same as that of "shout". These findings appear to be an additional support of the thesis suggested by Michio Ikai and Arthur H. Steinhaus that in every voluntarily executed, all-out maximal effort, psychologic rather than physiologicl factors determine the limits of performance.