Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 50 , Issue 4
Showing 1-37 articles out of 37 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages Cover13-
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages Cover14-
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages App30-
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages App31-
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages App32-
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Machiko Kimura
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 403-413
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The current paper attempts to consider the fundamental reasons for school physical education by (1) examining the historical perspective, (2) reviewing critically the approaches adopted up to the present time, and (3) examining the future prospects for physical education in schools. The reasons for school physical education up to the present have been based on usefulness in a "closed community", which plays a dominant role outside and controls people inside. However, in the current climate of globalization, it is necessary for people with different cultures to understand each other and live together. Therefore the logic of the "closed community", on which modern society is mainly based, creates many problems. In the future, the reasons for school physical education should be sought in an "open community" that encourages people to grow up accepting others. This is not easy, because the logic of the "open community" runs contrary to the traditional western concept that human values are found only in reason. In order to examine the aims of school physical education in an "open community", the human body needs to be understood firstly not as material, but as a place for "co-existence". Thus school physical education needs to be reconstructed on the basis of this understanding of the human body.
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  • Hirohiko Maemura, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Kaoru Takamatsu
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 415-424
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sprint training (30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting) on bicarbonate buffering capacity and anaerobic capacity. Fourteen healthy males were assigned to either a training group (TG; n=7) or a control group (CG; n=7). The TG performed sprint training 2 days per week for 8 weeks. Before and after training, exercise performance (mean power) and excess CO_2 output (ExcessCO_2) were measured by 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting, and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) was measured by 2-3 min exhaustive cycling test. Mean power (pre: 8.5±0.9W/kg, post: 9.3±0.8W/kg, p<0.01), ExcessCO_2 (pre: 93.4±12.8ml/kg, post: 102.3±12.2ml/kg, p<0.05), and MAOD (pre: 59.6±14.4ml/kg, post: 68.2±11.0ml/kg, p<0.01) were significantly increased after training in the TG. A significant correlation was demonstrated between percentage change in ExcessCO_2 and that in MAOD (r=0.755, p<0.05). Before and after training, mean power was significantly correlated with ExcessCO_2 and MAOD, respectively. These results suggest that the increase in ExcessCO_2 caused by sprint training may enhance the energy supplied from anaerobic metabolism, and improve short-duration intensive exercise performance.
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  • Tatsuaki Ikeda, Kaoru Takamatsu
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 425-436
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present study investigated the profiles of muscular strength and endurance characteristics in individuals based on two types of evaluation, and attempted to obtain a fundamental guideline for determining training objectives of dynamic resistance training with the ultimate aim of increasing the one-repetition maximum (1RM). Thirty-six male college and graduate students with experience in various sports participated. The subjects performed knee extension exercise, and maximal isometric strength (Isom.max), 1RM and the numbers of repetitions loaded at 90%, 70% and 50% 1RM (N_<90>, N_<70>, N_<50>) were measured. To evaluate the characteristics of muscular endurance, two original indices, N_<total> (total number of repetitions: N_<90>+N_<70>+N_<50>), and I-E slope (Intensity-Endurance slope: the form of the relationship between relative load and number of repetitions) were used. The subjects were divided into four groups based on their strength and endurance performance, i.e. 1RM and N_<total>, or 1RM and I-E slope (SE: high strength-high endurance, Se: high strength-low endurance, sE: low strength-high endurance, se: low strength-low endurance). The major findings were: (1) The number of repetitions was largest at 50% 1RM among the intensities used, and decreased significantly with the increase in relative load (P<0.01). (2) There was a significant negative correlation between 1RM and N_<total> (P<0.01). (3) There was a significant positive correlation between N_<total> and I-E slope (P<0.01). (4) N_<total> and I-E slope possibly represent different physiologic factors of muscular endurance, because unlike N_<total>, I-E slope did not correlate with 1RM. (5) The profiles of muscular strength and endurance in each individual can be appropriately evaluated by using the relationship between either 1RM and N_<total> or that between 1RM and I-E slope. The results suggest the importance of evaluating the profiles of muscular strength and endurance in each individual to determine the primary training objective of a dynamic resistance training program.
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  • Yoichi Hayashi, Kiyoji Tanaka, Masaki Nakagaichi, Tohru Kiryu
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 437-447
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    When individuals select their own exercise intensity, the factors contributing to the perception of exercise intensity are important. In particular, it is not clear whether the activity of the skeletal muscles influences the self-selected (SS) intensity. Previous investigations have reported that effort sense increases in response to greater neuromotor activity as measured by electromyography (EMG) during dynamic exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of skeletal muscle activity on SS exercise intensity by investigating the relationship between the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and EMG response. Seven healthy men (mean±SD, 22.2±0.4 years) performed two 20-min sessions of cycling exercise with a protocol involving the SS method, which consisted of 5 min of fixed-load cycling at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by 15 min of cycling with the SS method (SSFL_<70%>). RPE in the femoral region (RPE-peripheral: RPEp) was not correlated with the percentage peak wattage (% W_<peak>) and EMG indices in the femoral region during the SS protocol. While correlation coefficients between RPEp and EMG indices showed significantly negative values during the SSFL_<70%> protocol, there was no significant correlation between them during the SS protocol. These results during SSFL_<70%> suggested that the decrease of agonist muscle exertion and stress in the joint were caused by the increase in revolutions per minute during cycling. The increase in revolutions per minute during SSFL_<70%> appears to affect the decrease in the exertion of the agonist muscles and the stress in the joint and subsequent decline in RPEp. Since exercise intensity with the SS method is thought to be selected on the basis of cognitive feedback, these results suggest that tension of the skeletal muscle and agonist muscular exertion do not influence the perception of intensity during exercise with the SS method.
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  • Hirokazu Arai, Tomohiro Nakamura
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 449-458
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In Japan, university physical education classes for students with disabilities or injuries have received little attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a physical education program ("adapted course") on male university students with disabilities or injuries. Seven students at an institute of technology participated, and written informed consent was obtained from the all of them. The program consisted of 13 weekly classes: (1) nine classes of sports activities ("boccia" and "accuracy with flying disc") and (2) four classes of guidance and lectures. In sports activities, teachers paid attention to keeping the activities enjoyable, encouraging individual students to obtain advanced skills, talking to individual students frequently, and making frequent opportunities to promote communication among the participants. The themes of the lectures were "relationship between lifestyle and health" and "behavioral skills for lifestyle change". The program aimed to provide (1) educational skills for behavioral change and (2) out-of-class practical assignments as homework. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test showed that the participants significantly reduced the number of hours they watched TV and used a PC per week between the time before and after attending the course (p<.10). Furthermore, the participants showed better scores for perceived pleasure and relationships with other class participants. It is concluded that this physical education program has positive effects on the lifestyle of male university students.
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  • Hirokazu Arai, Atsushi Kiuchi, Tomohiro Nakamura, Ryotaro Urai
    Type: Article
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 459-466
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of a physical activity program (physical education class) on male university students employing behavioral change skills for a period of thirteen weeks on their level of physical activity and the self-efficacy of exercise. The study compared the effects of different physical activity programs: (1) an intervention group employing behavioral change skills (self-monitoring and goal setting) and (2) a control group employing no behavioral change skills. Seven hundred and eighty-eight male freshmen from an institute of technology in Japan were selected to serve as subjects for the intervention group (N=411) and the control group (N=377). Both the programs, which consisted of thirteen weekly classes, included (1) a guidance and 4 to 5 lectures in the classroom and (2) sports activities (table tennis, badminton, or soccer) 8 to 9 times. The theme of the lectures in both programs was "the relationship between lifestyle and health in contemporary society". For the intervention group, the program included (1) education about behavioral change skills and (2) out-of-class practical assignments as homework on physical education. The subjects were rated on the basis of two measurements, conducted before and after the physical activity programs: (1) The Physical Activity Assessment Scale (PAAS; Wakui and Suzuki, 1997) to evaluate physical activity patterns, using two PAAS subscales, i.e. Exercise/Sports and Daily Activity. (2) Self-efficacy for exercise scale (Oka, 2003a) to assess self-efficacy for exercise behavior. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant group×time interaction only for the Daily Activity subscale, suggesting that the intervention group exhibited enhanced daily physical activity as compared with the control group. It is concluded that physical activity programs employing behavioral change skills (self-monitoring and goal setting) have a positive effect on enhancement of daily physical activity for male university students.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 467-468
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 469-474
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 475-
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 476-478
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 479-480
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 481-
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 482-483
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 484-498
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 499-
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 500-501
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 502-506
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 507-510
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 511-512
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 513-515
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 516-518
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 519-
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages 522-
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages App33-
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages App34-
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages App35-
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages App36-
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages App37-
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    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages App38-
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages App39-
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages Cover15-
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2005 Volume 50 Issue 4 Pages Cover16-
    Published: July 10, 2005
    Released: September 27, 2017
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