Self-esteem has been regarded as an important element of quality of life (QOL), health-related QOL (HRQL), and psychological well-being within educational, clinical, and health programs. Additionally, self-esteem enhancement is a common objective of physical education and exercise programs. This paper reviews some theoretically-based studies examining the multidimensional and hierarchical self-esteem model in the domain of exercise psychology, and discusses how these findings may guide the design and application of exercise interventions. Recent advances in the theory and measurement of self-esteem are described, including the concept of multidimensionality and hierarchical structuring. The hierarchical model proposed by Fox and Cotbin (1989) and the exercise and self-esteem model (EXSEM) proposed by Sonstroem and Morgan (1989) are explained. Use of these models is recommended as a theoretical framework for research on exercise and self-esteem. In addition, the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP) and the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) are used to assess the model. The PSPP and the PSDQ can be regarded as well-established, reliable and well-validated instruments. This review also summarizes research examining the effect of exercise on self-esteem and the structure of the multidimensional and hierarchical self-esteem model. This research shows that participation in physical activity is related to improvements in physical self-worth and global self-esteem. Finally, several shortcomings within the former literature as well as implications for future study are described. It is hoped that this review will provide new insights and highlight important directions for future investigation.
With respect to motor control, scientists have long assumed, on the basis of both clinical findings and neuropsychological studies, that there are interhemispheric asymmetries in the human cerebrum. The left hemisphere has been reported to be dominant for feedforward aspects of motor control as well as for speech processing. On the other hand, the right hemisphere is dominant for closed-loop motor processes, facial recognition, and attentional monitoring. The present review presents experimental evidence for interactions between the cerebral hemispheres in the bimanual control of muscle force and movement timing and bilateral transfer of perceptual-motor information for motor skill. First, the asymmetrical control of force and the symmetrical control of timing in bimanual simultaneous hand movements are discussed. Second, the entrainment of force in bimanual simultaneous hand movements with asymmetrical forces is described. Third, the author addresses the lateralization of transfer of visuomotor information between the right and left hands. During unimanual hand movements with visual feedback, whereas positive transfers from the left to the right hand were observed for right-handers, left-handers showed the opposite direction for positive transfers. Thus, because the hemispheres differ in the kinds of perceptual-motor information they most effectively encode, they complement each other.
The objective of this study was to treat media texts on sports as narratives, and then analyze their structure. In order to do so, a content analysis was performed on articles appearing in The Nishinippon Shimbun reporting the 51st Around The Kyushu Ekiden (long-distance relay race) held from November 1st to 10^<th>, 2002. It was confirmed that in these articles, various narratives appeared, such as "Competition Between Teams", "Competition Between Individuals, or Heroes' Achievements", "The Character of Kyushu", "Family Relationships", "Revival", "Revenge", "Love of Home Town", "The Relationship Between Generations", "Gratitude To One's Teammates", "The Tradition of Around The Kyushu Ekiden", and so on. The Around The Kyushu Ekiden narratives according to the media are structured so that the central story "Competition Between Teams" is connected with various sub-plots concerning competition, such as "Competition Between Individuals, or Heroes' Achievements", thus further asserting its position as part of other plots. In conclusion, it may be thought that the Around The Kyushu Ekiden narratives are structured to maximize the diversity of narration, or alternatively that a limit is placed on this diversity, or that such diversity can be added to a limited narration.
A study was conducted to analyze the effects of instructions on elderly women's walking speed, the pressure on their planta, and their ankle motion during walking. Compared with free walking, the subjects were given the following instructions : (1) to walk as fast as possible 'fast-walking'; (2) to walk with as long a stride as possible 'long-stride walking'; (3) to walk with the heels striking the ground first 'heel-strike walking'; (4) to walk with the upper limbs swinging forward and backward with a large amplitude 'arm-swing walking'. The subjects were nine healthy elderly women (73-95 years of age). Using a Parotec System (Paromed Co. Ltd.), the pressure on the planta was measured and images of the walking movements were analyzed using Winanalyze. Compared with free walking, the first peak value of the pressure on the planta and the pressure on the heels showed a significant increase when walking under instruction. It was understood that this was due to increased walking speed and strength of heel strike when the subjects were conscious of the walking motion. The increased walking speed depended on the expansion of each step length. It was also suggested that the smaller dorsiflexion of the ankle joint in these elderly women during free walking could be improved by using 'heel-strike' walking. When walking according to instructions, the walking ratio (step length/cadence) of the women was similar to that of normal adults except in the case of 'fast-walking'. It was suggested that 'heel-strike walking', 'long-stride walking' and 'arm-swing walking' were likely to maintain walking ability and also to maintain the fitness level of elderly women.
The influence of self-prescribed exercise intensity on information processing in the central nervous system (CNS) was investigated using P300, no-go P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV) event-related potentials (ERP). Thirteen subjects aged 22-35y performed a go/no-go reaction time task under a control condition, and again after self- and externally prescribed pedaling exercises. The average rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), and work rate (WR) for 20min of both exercises were equivalent. The comfort level after self-prescribed and externally prescribed exercises was measured by a visual analog scale (VAS). VAS after self-prescribed exercise was increased compared with that after externally prescribed exercise, indicating that the comfort level after self-prescribed exercise was larger. That is, we only manipulated comfort levels because exercise intensity and duration were fixed for each subject. The P300 latency shortened after self-prescribed exercise compared to the control condition, and the P300 amplitude after self-prescribed exercise was larger than under the control condition. The larger and earlier P300 after self-prescribed exercise suggested that when larger amounts of attentional resources were allocated to a given task, the stimulus evaluation time was faster. However, early CNV amplitude was not influenced by either type of pedaling exercise. From these results, we suggest that P300 changes after self-prescribed exercise due to psychological factors such as comfort level, but not due physiological factors such as arousal level. In addition, no-go P300 also showed the same changes as P300 after self-prescribed exercise. This indicates that self-prescribed factors (comfort level) influence not only the stimulus evaluation processing the requirement for a go response, but also processing of the need for a no-go response. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that differences in comfort level obtained after exercise influence information processing in the CNS.
This research was conducted in order to study the influence of long-time and short-time intensive exercise on the level of SOD mRNA expression in human lymphocytes. Eight male university students (aged 20-22) undertook a 30-km run, while 10 others (aged 18-20) undertook a maximal exercise test using an aero bike. All 18 subjects were members of the track and field club. Blood samples were obtained before and 30 minutes after both types of exercise. Expression of manganese-SOD (Mn-SOD) mRNA and copper-zinc SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD) mRNA in the lymphocytes was measured. The results of the 30-km run showed a significant increase in the expression levels of both Mn-SOD mRNA and Cu/Zn-SOD mRNA (p<0.05 in both cases). In the maximal exercise test, Cu/Zn-SOD mRNA expression levels were not significantly altered; however, Mn-SOD mRNA expression levels showed a significant increase 30 minutes after the test, in comparison with those before the test (p<0.05). These results suggest that SOD mRNA in lymphocytes is enhanced not only during longtime but also during short-time intensive exercise, probably due to the induction of oxidative stress. It is also suggested that Mn-SOD mRNA in lymphocytes is more susceptible to the effects of exercise than Cu/Zn-SOD mRNA.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the length of training cycles under combined application of two resistance training types with different purposes on muscle cross-sectional area, muscular strength, anaerobic power, and anaerobic endurance. The subjects were 14 male college football players (freshman) with no previous muscular strength training experience for at least 12 months, and were arbitrarily divided into long-cycle and short-cycle groups (7 subjects in each). The subjects performed training twice a week for 8 weeks. The bulk-up-type (hypertrophy type) training method and strength-up type were alternately applied every 4 weeks in the long-cycle group and every 2 weeks in the short-cycle group. As a result, it was suggested that longcycle training was effective for developing muscular strength at relatively low speed and anaerobic endurance, whereas short-cycle training was effective for developing muscular strength at high speed. These results indicate that it is necessary to determine the length of the training cycle according to the aim of each individual.
The benefits of organized camps for improving many psychological aspects have been well demonstrated in various studies. However, few reports in this area have focused on the level of physical activity. An organized camp experience is a potential approach for promoting physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the influences of organized camp experience on physical activity level and television viewing time in elementary children. A group of twenty children participated in an organized summer camp program for one week, and another twenty-one children who did not participate in any camp were used as a control group. The organized camp program utilized structured adventure activities and nature activities. The primary aims of the organized camp were to promote physical activities during the camp and in a daily setting. Subjects were equipped with a Kenz Lifecorder for three time periods (Time 1 : pre-camp; Time 2 : during-camp; Time 3 : post-camp) to monitor physical activity. A physical activity index was calculated from the Lifecorder data of step counts, exercise energy expenditure, and total daily energy expenditure. Children also reported the time they spent viewing television in diaries at Time 1 and Time 3. When repeated-measures ANOVA was used, a significant interaction effect was found for the physical activity index; physical activity levels during Time 2 were higher than during Times 1 and 3 in the experimental group, and were lower than Times 1 and 3 in the control group. As for television viewing time, ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effect. The findings of the study are discussed in terms of their impact on research. Further investigation is required to identify an organized camp behavior strategy that promotes point of post time physical activity in elementary children. Suggestions for future investigation are also presented.