体育学研究
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
51 巻 , 5 号
選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
原著論文
  • 松崎 愛, 蝶間林 利男, 木村 昌彦
    2006 年 51 巻 5 号 p. 611-621
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2008/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究は, 若年女性における性周期ならびに基礎体温の高低差が, 常温環境下での長時間一定負荷運動時体温調節反応に及ぼす影響を検討した.
    正常な性周期である健康な女性8名に対し, 事前に3ヶ月間の基礎体温 (BBT) を測定し, そこから推定した各被験者の低温相 (L ; 6-14日) と高温相 (H ; 18-30日) に, 室温25℃, 湿度50%一定環境に保たれた人工気候室で60%Vo2maxの自転車運動を60分間負荷し, 夫々3周期間行った. 尚, 実験日が高温相であることの妥当性を尾上らの「排卵日推定法」で調べ, 10日以上の高温相での実験群 (I群), 10日未満の高温相での実験群 (II群), 及び高温相のない実験群 (III群) に分類した.
    I群のBBTは (L) 36.13±0.05℃, (H) 36.59±0.19℃で (H) が有意に高値を示し (p<0.001), Treは安静時から60分間の運動中終始 (H) が (L) よりも明らかに高値で推移した. II群は, BBTが (L) 36.17±0.04℃, (H) 36.53±0.16℃で (H) が有意に高い値を示し (p<0.05), Treは安静時の間は明らかに (H) が高い値を示したが, その後差はなくなった. III群のBBTは (L) 36.14±0.10℃, (H) 36.23±0.04℃で, Treにおいても終始差は認められなかった. 以上の結果, 基礎体温が高温相で明らかに高い値を示すIとII群は, 高温相の深部体温は運動開始から低温相よりも高い値で推移するが, 運動終盤ではその差が消失する. 定常状態に至る温度閾値は変動しないが, 定常状態に至るまでの時間は基礎体温の高低差に左右されることは明らかであり, 定常状態に至るまでの変化を捉えるために発汗が開始した深部体温閾値を両相で比較することが必要であった. 一方, 基礎体温に高低差を認めないIII群は, 体温上昇に性周期の影響を認めなかった. すなわち, 運動時の体温調節反応への性周期の影響は, 高温相の長さに影響されず, 基礎体温及び運動開始時の深部体温の高低差に修飾されることが示唆された.
  • 三井 登
    2006 年 51 巻 5 号 p. 623-633
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2008/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    A study was conducted to clarify and examine the role played by the Health Centers for the Prevention of Tuberculosis in Children (HCPTCs) and the preventive measures taken against tuberculosis in elementary schools. In 1939, the Ministry of Health set up 40 HCPTCs in six major Japanese cities, including Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya, targeting children who attended elementary schools. The major achievements of the HCPTCs included obtaining an accurate grasp of the infection and progression of non-latent disease through conventional in-school physical examinations, defining the levels of disease progression, and taking appropriate measures in accordance with symptoms. In establishing the HCPTCs, the Health Ministry used elementary schools, which were ideal for instituting mass prevention programs. Elementary schools took on an active preventive role, conducting mass tests on children and dealing appropriately with children before they showed symptoms. Since mass testing and care-giving were conducted by school doctors and school nurses, these hygiene-related activities formed the heart of the HCPTC program.
  • 福原 昌恵
    2006 年 51 巻 5 号 p. 635-647
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2008/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The concept of “expressive play” was first introduced publicly at the Centennial World Exposition in the United States in 1876 as part of Froebel Kindergarten education, and was introduced to Japan as “yugi” by the Japanese Minister of Education, Fujimaro Tanaka, in his report of his experiences at the Exposition. “Yugi” was exhibited for the first time at the opening ceremony of a government kindergarten in 1877, during which children sang and moved their arms and legs, with spirit to represent a windmill. The term “yugi” had rarely been used before the Meiji Era (1868-1912), but with this occasion yugi became incorporated into the kindergarten curriculum in the early Meiji Era. The present study examined the awareness of “yugi” in kindergarten education during the history of Japan, starting with the report by Tanaka, who was a member of the Iwakura Mission that visited Europe and America in 1873, and was involved in the establishment of kindergartens. It was found that (1) in the early writings of Tanaka, the term “yugi” was used in a negative context indicating a “waste of time”. In the next stage (2), it was used in reports introducing non-deskwork activities conducted by public school pupils in the playground. Finally, (3) “yugi” was introduced not as simple exercise, but as an activity in which children moved their arms and legs while singing, with the intent of expressing some type of form.
  • 木下 秀明
    2006 年 51 巻 5 号 p. 649-661
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2008/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    In his treatise A reconsider about the process of forming the concept of physical education “which means an education for both the physical and the mental by means of physical exercises in modern Japan: focusing on the thoughts of the military drill by Arinori Mori” (2003), Koh-ichi Nakano asserts that the concept of physical education, education through physical activity, appeared in Japan some time during 1878-1882 or the first half of the second decade of the Meiji Era. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the period when this occurred was not the first half, but rather the latter half of the Meiji Era, i.e. 1883-1887, as ascertained by the auther in A Historical Study on the Formation of the Concept of “Physical Education” in the Meiji Era (1971). Following analysis of Nakano's work, one can conclude that the interpretation of the documents upon which he bases his assertions is flawed for the following reasons: (1) Nakano relies upon documents written in 1879, 1880 and 1882 as grounds for his argument. However they were written from the viewpoint of physical well-being involving three facets of holistic education: 1. intellectual, 2. moral and 3. physical well-being. Nakano incorrectly interprets words taken out of context to mean education through physical activity. (2) Nakano relies upon the early works of Arinori Mori, who was Japan's first Minister of Education from 1885 to 1889. In his address Education-Physical Ability (1879) at the Tokyo Academy (present day Japan Academy), Mori suggests that Western military training may be more useful in Japanese schools than Dio Lewis's light exercises taken from America, because it is able to increase both physical ability and spiritual energy, which is neeeded to excite physical ability. The idea is fundamentally based upon the same holistic education mentioned above. Nakano, however, misunderstands that the idea is based upon the concept of education through physical activity, because he presumes that the aims of military training were to instill not only physical, but also mental ability. (3) Mori enforced military training into schools to increase physical ability and also to cultivate the mind and spirit along the lines of moral education in 1885, in the latter half of the second decade. He was the first person in Japan to describe education through military training as a kind of physical activity. However, he did not actually use the term “physical education” to describe his concept until around 1887. Thus Nakano's theory on the formative period of the concept of physical education, education through physical activity, is incorrect due to misinterpretation of the documents upon which he based his theory.
  • 木島 章文, 調枝 孝治
    2006 年 51 巻 5 号 p. 663-675
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2008/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    We investigated the effects of the phonological elements of onomatopoeia on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of the grasping movement. Each of four types of onomatopoeia was repeatedly presented 20 times to eight subjects. Two of them contained a voiced consonant sound /g/ and the vowel /u/. The remaining two contained a more complex phonological structure, in which the semivowel /j/ was added between the voiceless consonant /k/ and the vowel /u/. Two types of onomatopoeia having the phonological structure /g/u/ differed with respect to the duration of vowel production; this was also the case for the phonological structure /k/j/u/. The subjects were instructed to grasp a hand-held cylinder following the presentation of each type of onomatopoeia. The grasping force was recorded via a strain gauge embedded in the cylinder. A larger maximum force was observed for the phonological structure /g/u/, a longer load duration being observed when the duration of vowel production became longer. Although these two quantitative parameters of the grasping movement remained unchanged, qualitative parameters such as load (/unload) time ratio were amplified by repeating the grasping movement 20 times, particularly when the phonological structure /k/j/u/ was presented. We suggest that as a movement instruction, it would be useful to symbolize the quantitative value of the movement in the form of onomatopoeia and to emphasize the qualitative characteristics by repeatedly presenting the type of onomatopoeia that indicates the movement characteristic intended by the instructor.
実践研究
  • 木内 敦詞, 荒井 弘和
    2006 年 51 巻 5 号 p. 677-688
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2008/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    It has been clarified that self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977) predicts behavior and plays an important role in improving performance. However, there have been no reports of any practical trials for improving sports performance through the development of self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to propose concrete application of the concept of self-efficacy to sports coaching, using base-running behavior in baseball as a theme. In Study 1, we examined the reliability (internal consistency and stability) of the Self-Efficacy Scale for Base-Running (SES-BR). In Study 2, we examined whether the intervention of the SES-BR could improve the self-efficacy and the performance of base-running as well as psychological competitive abilities such as “decisiveness,” “predictive ability,” and “judgment.” In Study 1, three coaches from a college baseball team extracted 31 types of base-running behavior that are considered critical in baseball games. In order to examine the reliability of the scale, the self-efficacy scores of the fielders in the team (N =24) were measured twice: once on the first day of the season, and again, one week later. The results indicated Cronbach's a =.94 and a test-retest correlation coefficient r =.81 ( p <.001) for the SES-BR, thus verifying the scale's reliability. In Study 2, the college baseball players received cards on which the SES-BR was printed and were instructed to verify the 31 base-running behavioral items every five days. The results revealed a significant increase in the self-efficacy score during the intervention period ( p <.05). Moreover, the base-run errors—an index for base-running performance—decreased due to the intervention of the SES-BR: 8.30/game before the intervention, 6.77/game (-18%) in the first season, and 4.32/game in the second season (-48%). Furthermore, “decisiveness” and the comprehensive evaluation of psychological competitive ability, as evaluated by DIPCA (Tokunaga, 2001), showed significant improvement during the second intervention season ( p <.05 for both). Therefore, the intervention of the SES-BR, which was developed in this study and confirmed to be highly reliable, was suggested as a possible measure for improving self-efficacy and performance in base-running as well as “decisiveness” and overall psychological competitive ability.
  • 渡邉 聡, 加藤 謙一
    2006 年 51 巻 5 号 p. 689-702
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2008/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究の目的は, 中学2年生の短距離走の授業 (5時間) において, 生徒主体による方法と, 教師主導による方法の2つを計画, 実施し50m走における10mごとの速度, ピッチおよびストライドの変化を通して疾走能力の練習効果をとらえるとともに, 授業方法の違いが練習効果に与える影響を明らかにすることであった. その結果は, 以下のように要約できる.
    (1) 練習前の50m走タイムは, 男女練習群I, IIおよび統制群には統計的な差はみられなかった. しかし, 練習後において, 男子練習群Iは8.27秒から8.12秒へ, 男子練習群IIは8.33秒から8.07秒へ, 女子練習群は9.23秒から9.09秒へそれぞれ有意にタイムが短縮した. しかし, 女子練習群I, 男女統制群では有意な変化はみられなかった.
    (2) 練習後の10mごとの疾走速度は, 男子では, 練習群Iが20-30m区間と30-40m区間, 練習群IIが0-10m区間を除く全ての区間, 統制群が30-40m区間でそれぞれ有意に増加した. 一方女子では, 練習群IIが20-30m区間と30-40m区間でそれぞれ有意に増加した. しかし, 練習群Iおよび統制群では, どの区間においても有意な変化はみられなかった.
    (3) 練習後のピッチは, 男子では, 練習群Iが20-30m区間, 練習群IIが0-10m区間, 統制群が40-50m区間でそれぞれ有意に増加した. 一方女子では, 練習群IIが0-10m区間で有意に増加した. しかし, 練習群Iおよび統制群では, どの区間においても有意な変化はみられなかった.
    (4) 練習後のストライドは, 男子では練習群Iが40-50m区間, 練習群IIが10-20m区間と40-50m区間で有意に増加した. しかし, 統制群では, どの区間においても有意な変化はみられなかった. 一方, 女子では練習群IIが20-30m区間, 30-40m区間および40-50m区間でそれぞれ有意に増加した. しかし, 練習群Iおよび統制群では, どの区間においても有意な変化はみられなかった.
    (5) 練習群が短距離走の動作について記述した内容の中で具体的にからだの動かし方, 姿勢, タイミングなどの内容を記述したものは, 練習群Iでは男子が5名 (33.3%), 女子が4名 (36.4%), 練習群IIでは男子が8名 (53.3%), 女子が8名 (66.7%) であった.
    以上のことから, 5時間の短距離走の練習によって男子練習群I, 男女練習群IIの疾走能力を向上させることが示唆された. その主な原因は, 男子練習群Iは, 全速疾走局面のピッチおよびストライドが増加したこと, 男女練習群IIは, ストライドが増加したことであった. また, 短距離走の動作について具体的な記述をしたものは, 練習群IIの方が練習群Iよりも多く, 練習群IIの方が練習群Iよりも具体的に学習のねらいを理解していたと考えられた. したがって, 中学生の短距離走の授業 (5時間) では, 生徒主体の授業 (課題解決型) よりも教師主導によって授業を展開した方が効果的であることが示唆された.
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