The purpose of this study was to analyze verbal communications between teachers and students, based on “parts of speech” employed, in two types of class: one that produced markedly enhanced learning outcomes (attitude scores) (upper group) and another that did not (lower group). An attempt was also made to clarify the validity of the way in which teachers interacted verbally indicated by previous studies. In physical education classes, hurdle races were held with eight classes in the upper (fifth and sixth) grades of elementary school from May to July 1997. All remarks made by teachers and selected students accompanying the teachers' actions during the 3rd, 4th, 6th and 7th periods (main parts of a curriculum unit) were recorded in all eight classes using video tape recorders and wireless microphones. All eight classes adopted the same educational program with the aim of attaining the same goal. The words used by the teachers and children were classified by parts of speech, the minimum units of sentences, and the frequency of use of each of the parts of speech was counted during each 45-minute period (hereafter referred to as “analysis according to parts of speech” or “parsing”). The results obtained confirmed that some specific verbal interactions used by teachers enhanced learning outcomes (attitudes and skills) in the hurdle races. Moreover, it was recognized that teachers of the upper groups used the eight parts of speech as shown in the “Introduction”, regardless of their fondness for those parts of speech. In the upper groups, it was seen that, when affected by the verbal interactions of teachers, students at mid-level acted as “joints” to tighten the link through verbal interactions among fellow students. It is considered that this phenomenon consequentially enhanced cohesiveness in each learning group, and improved students' attitudes and skills. From these results it is speculated that the verbal interactions by teachers stated in previous studies to serve as the “grammar of physical education classes” have a high potential to enhance the learning outcome (attitudes and skills) of students in the upper (fifth and sixth) grades of elementary school.
The purpose of this study was to examine a motivational model that integrated achievement goal theory (Ames, 1992; Nicholls, 1989) and self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 1991; Vallerand, 1997). The study method was a questionnaire for university students (N=133) who had not participated in sports activity during their time at high school. Results of confirmatory factor analyses to test the factor structure of the motivational climate (task-involving climate, ego-involving climate), psychological needs (needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence) and intrinsic motivation supported the validity of these factor models. The results of structural equation modeling to test the sequence: motivational climate → psychological needs → intrinsic motivation → exercise participation supported the validity of the sequence model. The model showed that a task-involving climate predicts psychological needs while an ego-involving climate does not, and that psychological needs predict intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation predicts exercise participation. Thus it was suggested that (1) a direct factor in promoting exercise participation of university students is intrinsic motivation in physical education classes while at high school, (2) a mediator promoting intrinsic motivation is fulfillment of psychological needs (autonomy, relatedness and competence), and (3) the factor for fulfilling psychological needs is a task-involving climate in physical education classes while at high school.
When the boundary layer of a sports ball undergoes the transition from laminar to turbulent flow, a drag crisis occurs whereby the drag coefficient (Cd) rapidly decreases. However, the aerodynamic properties and boundary-layer dynamics of a soccer ball are not well understood. Here we showed that the critical Reynolds number (Recrit) of a soccer ball was 2.2 - 3.0 × 105. Wind-tunnel testing, along with visualization of the dynamics of the boundary layer and the trailing vortex of a ball in flight clearly demonstrated that both non-spinning and spinning curved balls had low Cd values in the supercritical region. We also showed that the Recrit of a soccer ball was lower than that (approximately 3.5 - 4 × 105) of a smooth sphere, due to the effects of its panels; this indicated that the aerodynamic properties of a soccer ball were between those of a smooth ball and a golf ball. Lateral images taken during high-speed kicking of a spinning curve ball (26 m/s; 8 rps) revealed that the separation point was approximately 120° from the front-stagnation point. In addition, the boundary layer between the top and bottom surfaces of the ball became turbulent. Top-view images taken during curved kicking (27 m/s; 7 rps) showed vortex deflection due to the effects of a relative difference in fluid speed caused by the spinning. The curvature of the ball was largely attributed to a lateral force generated by vortex counteraction. However, although the separation point showed left-right asymmetry in relation to the direction of travel (top-bottom symmetry on the images), it was approximately 116° from the front-stagnation point, which was similar to the separation angle during high-speed kicking of a non-spinning ball. In addition, the boundary layer became turbulent and the vortex region shrank during high-speed kicking of a spinning ball.
After World War II had ended in defeat for Japan, teachers throughout the country had to demilitarize and democratize physical education classes. However, most studies have concluded that in the immediate post-war years, this was not possible. Kusabuka (1996) has reported that the CIE (Civil Information and Education Section) under the control of GHQ/SCAP (General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers) put an affirmative evaluation on physical education classes in 1946. Miura (1991) states that the CIE inspected fifteen schools in 1948 and considered three of them to be affirmative. Thus it was shown clearly in these studies that some physical education classes were evaluated highly in the few years after World War II. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the extent to which the CIE inspected and affirmatively evaluated physical education classes in Japan by reference to historical materials, focusing especially on Nara Women's Higher Normal School Annexed Elementary School, which was inspected in 1948 by H. Manley, health education consultant for the CIE. Manley reported that the secondary school had an excellent games program, and also that 6th grade girls were taught an excellent rhythm program. Materials related to the history of the elementary school from 1945 to 1948 were then studied to specify the content of the physical education classes. This revealed that Chiyoe Matsumoto conducted an excellent rhythm program on July 3rd of that year, in which children had smiling faces, and a good sense of rhythm and power of expression. The main principles of this class were to develop and nurture a sense of individuality among the children. Manley was evidently impressed by Matsumoto’s approach. Therefore, it seems appropriate to note that during the two or three years immediately after World War II, all physical education classes in Japan were not necessarily in a state of disorder, and that some teachers were making efforts to improve their approach. In future studies I intend to explore the main factors that made it possible to improve physical education classes by inspecting the relationship between postwar and prewar activities in the same elementary school.
Clarification of the relationship between experiences in sports and personality development has been one of the most important issues in sport psychology. The present study focused on the relationship between the adoption of a belief in life skills through participation in athletic clubs as an opportunity for personality development, and time perspective (TP) as a psychological aspect that is related to adoption of this belief. In study 1, a questionnaire to measure the adoption of a belief in life skills through participation in athletic clubs (BLSQ) was developed through an investigation carried out on 563 college students who belonged to athletic clubs in high school or junior high school. It consisted of 4 subscales; positive thinking, endurance, propriety, and cooperation. The reliability of the BLSQ was verified, but the validity of it was not strictly verified. The factors related to adoption of the belief were identified through the preliminary investigation. In study 2, the BLSQ, the experimental time perspective scale (ETPS), and a survey of experiences in athletic clubs were introduced to 180 freshmen who belonged to athletic clubs at high school. From the results of study 2, it was clarified that (1) insight into self-experiences in athletic clubs was related to adoption of a belief in positive thinking and endurance. On the other hand, actual experiences in daily life were related to the adoption of a belief of propriety and cooperation. (2) A belief in life skills would be related to the development of TP through an affirmative interpretation of experiences gained at the athletic clubs. Consequently, it is considered that an affirmative interpretation of experiences at athletic clubs as experiences that facilitate the acquisition of life skills, leads to the development of TP.