The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the response selection of collegiate kendo players (mid- and high-level skill groups, n=9 for both groups) during matches from complex viewpoints. First, the subjects reported their own skill (or waza) knowledge utilized during practices and matches, and then participated in matches with players of the same group. We analyzed their thinking processes and frequencies of utilization of skill knowledge as processing contents, as well as the consequent processing times and starting times of defenders’ appropriate reactions to the response selection. Although differences in the thinking processes and processing times of the two groups were not significant, the high-level skill group utilized their skill knowledge more frequently and delayed the defenders’ appropriate reactions. The reported thinking processes, i.e., those that could be verbalized, reflected effective thought processes such as brief thinking. The processing times, which we expected to be significantly different between the two groups, were influenced by time variabilities produced by the players themselves, as they must utilize various processing methods in different match situations. Analysis of the processing contents also showed that the high-level skill group selected actions actively and frequently by using their skill knowledge to anticipate situations and assess non-immediate environmental information. This processing mode led to tactical “active response selection”, which we believe is an important factor in the creation of 100-ms delays in the appropriate reactions made by defenders, delays that translate into points scored. Such active response selection, which differs from passive processing of environmental information, i.e., the “passive response selection” that has been reported in highly skilled players in other sports studies, indicates that the processing mode in response selection changes according to the characteristics of a sport. Also, the mid-level skill group adopted passive response selection more frequently. Consequently, we suggest that 1) kendo players should aim towards active response selection, 2) should acquire effective skill knowledge, and 3) should utilize this knowledge actively and frequently in response selection.
The purposes of this study were 1) to examine whether Andrich's binominal model in which a single skill is measured by repeated trials is applicable to athletic skill tests, and 2) to develop a simple and practical evaluation method using it. This approach was applied to a basketball shot skill test. The test subjects were 203 male college students, who performed ten different basketball shots from various distances and directions. They attempted each shot five times, and the number of successful shots was recorded. In addition, the number of shots and goals for each student was recorded, and their basketball experience was surveyed. From the results, the following findings were obtained. 1) Regarding the one-trial per one-item approach, no one-dimensionality was found and the discriminative power was low, and therefore this approach was considered to be valid. In the approach using the number of successful trials, one-dimensionality, and a high correlation between the number of successful trials for each item and the total number of successful trials were found. This indicated that this approach has higher validity. 2) Concerning difficulty, it was found that a shot from under the goal post was easiest, followed by a running shot and a free throw, in decreasing order of easiness. A three-point shot was the most difficult. 3) The correlation between item parameters obtained from two-divided specimens was high, and sample cross-validation was confirmed although the correlation of ability estimates, θ, was low between the items divided into two. However, this does not necessarily conflict with the cross-validation of ability estimates because the number of items was too small to be divided. 4) Judging from the value of the information function, accurate measurement equivalent to 0.9 reliability was possible when the value of θ was between 0.0 and 2.5. That is to say, it is considered that the skill test is valid as a means of discriminating ability among subjects with average to above-average ability, like those used in the present study. 5) The value of ability estimates, θ, was significantly correlated with the number of shots and goals during the skill test, as well as the basketball experience of the students during their period at junior high school and high school. It is considered that the value is valid as a representation of the subjects' basketball shooting skills. Finally, this study proposed an evaluation sheet, taking advantage of the fact that the number of successful trials can be a sufficient statistic of θ. This sheet will make it possible to hypothesize ability estimates easily and link the value to an anticipated number of successful trials. In this study, two cases were evaluated using the sheet.
Commercial sport and fitness clubs (CSFCs) are human service organizations (HSOs) run as businesses that produce and deliver quality sport services to sports consumers. Although such CSFCs are run as service businesses, a bureaucracy system has been applied to many sport management organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine and explain the phenomenon of the HSO in CSFCs as sport management organizations. In order to pursue this purpose, the hypothetical construct of the “HSO orientation” was operationalized by a total of 50 statements categorized under five dimensions such as “flat hierarchy”, “empowerment”, “openness”, “innovativeness”, and “organizational learning”. Questionnaires containing the 50 statements were distributed to a total of 693 CSFC managers. Two hundred eighteen usable questionnaires were returned, resulting in a response rate of 31.5%. The statistical techniques employed to identify the overall HSO structure in CSFCs were Item-Total correlation analysis, factor analysis, principal component analysis, Cronbach’s reliability analysis, and t-test. The main findings are summarized as follows : 1) Item-Total correlation analysis eliminated 8 statements that lacked a significant correlation. Also, factor analysis of 42 statements excluding the previous eight eliminated 3 statements with a factor loading of 0.4 or less. Then, using principal component analysis and reliability analysis, the HSO orientation construct in CSFCs was identified in these 39 statements in the five dimensions. 2) When the T-scores computed for all five dimensions were compared for differences (low versus high) in organizational performance using t-test, T-scores differed significantly for flat hierarchy, innovativeness, and organizational learning. That is to say, a high performance organization’s T-scores were higher than those of a low performance organization for these three components. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that the above five dimensions can be a valid viewpoint of organization design for creating the HSO in CSFCs.
The purpose of this study was to examine improvements in tactical decision-making ability achieved by participating in basketball games with numerically uneven sides (3 on 2). The research focused on in-game decision-making as an important component of the learning of the basketball tactics in physical education classes. Three elementary school basketball classes consisting of two grade 5 classes and 1 grade 6 class were examined. The 82 class participants (boys=38, girls=44) received a total of 11 hours instruction. A physical education researcher advised the elementary school teacher (1) how to teach the principles of offensive decision-making in basketball and (2) how to facilitate improvements in tactical decision-making ability within the context of numerically uneven sides. In order to analyze children's decision-making ability in the games, all game situations were filmed with digital video cameras and the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI) was used. The main findings are summarized as follows : 1) In all cases of shooting, passing and ball-keeping, the rate of appropriate decision-making, according to the data obtained from later units (classes 10 and 11), showed a significant (p>.05) increase when compared with data obtained from earlier units (classes 2 and 3). 2) Results indicated that the appropriate ball-keeping performances, represented as a percentage, were lower than both those of shooting and passing throughout the duration of the study. 3) Appropriate decision-making, when represented as a percentage, improved with learning experience in numerically uneven sides. These results support the hypothesis that the decision-making ability of children improves with learning experience by playing basketball games with numerically uneven sides.