Everyone experiences fatigue in daily life, but conscious awareness of fatigue differs considerably among individuals. A method for evaluating fatigue based on individual subjective symptoms was developed for labor hygiene in Japan, but in Europe and the United States, the scales employed have been widely developed mainly in the field of medical treatment. Adolescence and young adulthood are very important age stages in which physical fitness of young adults develops markedly and their lifestyle is determined. Adolescent and young adult lifestyles, and the causes and contents of their fatigue, differ considerably from those of laborers. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use fatigue scales developed for laborers to evaluate the fatigue of adolescents and young adults. Fatigue is closely related to health, physical fitness, and stress, and subjective fatigue symptoms can also be used as an important index for health evaluation. Considering the significance of today's fatigue evaluations for adolescents and young adults, it is indispensable to have simple and rational scales for subjective fatigue symptoms that evaluate fatigue appropriately. Study in this field has been progressing. Although there are various subjective fatigue scales, it is desirable to have detailed evaluations assuming 5 to 7 component factors. In this review, we discuss the definition of fatigue, the significance of fatigue evaluation based on subjective symptoms, and examine the history and component factors of fatigue. Through discussion, it is desirable to conduct more multifaceted research, focusing on the evaluation of subjective fatigue symptoms for adolescents and young adults.
A study was conducted to clarify the features of suijutsu (Japanese traditional swimming) led by Kano Jigoro (1860-1938). In 1898, Kano organized suijutsu for the students at his private school, Zoshikai, and consequently suijutsu was named Zoshikai-suijutsu. Most of the swimming styles taught were derived from Nihon Yueijutsu written by Ota Sutezo (1825-1892), who had tried to integrate all the traditional swimming styles. Kano agreed with the idea of Nihon Yueijutsu, and tried to spread this swimming style by holding swimming athletic meetings and introducing a step-system like that in judo. Kano also organized Koshi-eihou for the students of Tokyo Higher Normal School in 1903, when he was president of the school. This swimming style was composed not only of Nihon Yueijutsu, but also various traditional swimming sects, such as Shinden-ryu, Kankai-ryu, Kobori-ryu and Suifu-ryu. Nakano Jiro, who was a Shinden-ryu swimming teacher, selected the swimming styles for Koshi-eihou. Kano tried to reorganize suijutsu and to have it introduced into the school education system in Japan. All first-grade students were obliged to participate in swimming practice for two weeks to learn Koshi-eihou. As most of the students who graduated from Tokyo Higher Normal School became teachers at normal schools and middle schools, the swimming style of Koshi-eihou was introduced into various schools all over Japan. The features of the reorganization of suijutsu led by Kano were as follows : ·While Kano tried to integrate all the traditional swimming styles, he organized Zoshikai-suijutsu and Koshi-eihou for the training of the young body and for cultivation of the mind. ·Koshi-eihou was organized at Tokyo Higher Normal School from the various traditional swimming sects, with the aim of being introduced into the school education system in Japan. Kano asked swimming teachers to devise a swimming style for Koshi-eihou. ·As Kano held swimming athletics meetings while practicing, the effect of the practice became evident. ·In the same way as for judo, Kano adopoted the step-system into suijutsu.
In recent time there have been many problems concerning the “other”, and many people seem to have lost sight of the essence of the other being. The authors speculate that the causes of these issues are deeply related to the problem of the “self-other” and “physicality”. Based on these background issues, this paper attempts to present a new thesis of the “transcendental other” in physical education. First, the authors try to clarify the essence of the teacher-student relationship, and whether it can be regarded as one of subject-object or subject-subject? If a teacher teaches and a student learns, across a gap of maturity, the student is not the same as the teacher, but alien to him/her. In this sense, the student is a “separate other” for the teacher. In other words it may be said that the process of education involves communication to the “other” as an “alien”, and that it allows a student to transcend from an “alien” status to the same being. The authors examine the substance of “transcendence” in the following way. Though, according to L. Wittgenstein, logic and ethics are transcendental as “what cannot be said”, we cannot say what we have learned in education ; for example we have no words to describe skills learned in swimming. Therefore we are open to learning through “what cannot be said”. For this, one must acquire a viewpoint of the “transcendental other”. Finally, the authors try to present a new thesis of the “transcendental other” in physical education, involving acquisition through practice of physical movement. It is possible not to comprehend the “other” linguistically, but to feel it in terms of physicality. The physical acquisition of the “transcendental other” allows the formation of a “we-relationship”. Accordingly, the essence of the “self-other” relationship is a paradox of “alienation and sameness”. It is necessary to understand our society from this viewpoint of physicality.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the original meaning of physical education in terms of the formation of interpersonal relationships. For this purpose, A. Schutz's concepts of “temporal immediacy” and “spatial immediacy” were examined in order to clarify the role of the human body in the formation of interpersonal relationships and the study. Procedure was as follows ; i. The theories of interpersonal relationships in social psychology and moral education were surveyed. Additionally, the placement of interpersonal relationships in physical education pedagogy was investigated. These surveys demonstrated the need to consider this issue in PE. ii. Schutz's concepts of “temporal immediacy” and “spatial immediacy” in the “We-relationship” were examined because the “We-relationship” is not treated as “intimacy” but as “form.” At this point, Schutz's view differs from the psychological one. He also suggests the importance of the human body in the “We-relationship.” Based on this examination, the term “working” is referred to, because “working” in interpersonal relationships is a bodily action. It is also considered indispensable to all kinds of communication. iii. Based on an examination of “working,” the role of the human body in such “immediacy” is examined. iv. The important role of the human body in interpersonal relationships is considered. The conclusions of the study were as follows ; i. “Temporal immediacy” and “spatial immediacy” represent the temporality and spatiality of “working.” These are bound with the individual ability of the human body. In addition, these factors were correlated with other's ability of the human body. ii. In physical education, it is necessary to focus on temporality and spatiality in the formation of interpersonal relationship. In other words, the original meaning of physical education for the formation of interpersonal relationships is to nurture this ability of the human body to constitute “immediacy.”
We examined the effect of learning on trunk rotation during the striking action when the subjects participated in a program designed to teach the striking actions involved in tee-ball, badminton, tennis, table tennis, and golf. The program emphasized both counterclockwise and clockwise trunk rotation to facilitate exploration of the perceptual-motor learning workspace. Twenty-nine right-handed male undergraduates participated in this program for 14 weeks as a university physical education class. In tee-ball, the striking actions in both batter boxes were observed before and after the program using the direct linear transformation method, and we analyzed the range of trunk rotation and peak angular velocity, classifying it into four movement patterns based on the kinetic link principle. A greater range of trunk rotation and higher peak angular velocity were seen in the counterclockwise action than in the clockwise action, and learning effects on the peak angular velocity of both shoulder and hip rotation and the range of hip rotation were demonstrated. In addition, the movement patterns of counterclockwise action showed a significant learning effect from arm domination to unitary action or an opening pattern. These results suggest the effectiveness of this alternative multiple-striking-action program for exploring the perceptual-motor workspace in motor learning based on the dynamic system approach.
A three-dimensional (3D) videography study was performed to clarify the mechanical effects of a change of pitching motion from an overhand throw (OH style) to a three-quarter throw (TQ style). Two collegiate pitchers (subjects A and B) who normally used the OH style participated. They were requested to change their original OH style into the TQ style. To do this, they were subjected to a one-year skill training program based on biomechanical principles and on knowledge such as the stretch-shortening cycle theory, muscle force-velocity relationship, and the motions of skilled pitchers (e.g., shoulder positioning at 90 degrees of abduction-adduction during the acceleration phase). Four pitches for subject A (two in pre-training, one during training and one in post-training), and three for subject B (one each in pre-training, training and post-training) were videotaped with the 3D DLT procedure using two high-speed cameras, and then analyzed. We then examined the mechanical differences between pre- and post-training. The speed of the ball at release increased progressively with every successive pitch for both subjects (Subject A : 1st : 130.3km/h ; 2nd : 133.2km/h ; 3rd : 135.7km/h ; 4th : 142.2km/h. Subject B : 1st : 131.0km/h ; 2nd : 135.0km/h ; 3rd : 139.3km/h). The pitching styles of both subjects changed from their original OH style to the TQ style, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The time-dependent patterns and peak values of the angular velocities of shoulder internal-external rotation and elbow flexion-extension of the throwing arm did not change very much. However, the peak value of the angular velocity of shoulder internal rotation occurred immediately after ball release for the OH style, while for the TQ style it occurred at ball release. As a result, the angular velocity of elbow extension at ball release was larger in the OH style than in the TQ style. On the other hand, the angular velocity of shoulder internal rotation at ball release was larger in the TQ style than in the OH style. These findings suggest that the increase in the speed of the ball is dominated by elbow extension in the OH style, and by shoulder internal rotation in the TQ style.
The purpose of this study was to develop a system for improving gait ability using the e-mail feature of a cellular phone, and to examine its effectiveness at a health class. This system was planned so that the participants could acquire a gait action known as core-stretch walking. One of the main features of this system is to send e-mails to provide guidance on the walking technique every day for 28 days. Forty-four participants in the class examined the effectiveness of this system, of whom 19 in the intervention group and 20 in the control group were analyzed. We compared the change in various measured parameters associated with gait ability (10m maximum walking time, number of steps in 10m maximum walking, 10m hurdle walking time, 10m zigzag walking time, timed up and go, and maximum step length) and with the subjects sense of walking in each group. As a result of this examination, we were able to recognize shortening of the measured figure associated with gait ability in the intervention group, as opposed to the control. Furthermore, the survey of attitude towards gait demonstrated that the intervention produced a clearer action of core-stretch walking. This system utilizing the e-mail feature of a cellular phone is suggested to have potential effectiveness for improvement of gait ability.