This paper explores the philosophy of Ekiken Kaibara (1630-1714) pertaining to medical science and health care for the people. Kaibara was a confucianist and a herb doctor practicing in the mid Edo period, and gained fame for his excellent Yojo-Kun. His writings are extensive, and show that health care services for the people were flourishing at the time, although he considered that social pursuits were not sufficiently balanced among the three dimensions -physical, mental, and social -which he thought were essential for a healthy life. When European medicine began to be introduced to Japan, all textbooks were written in Dutch. Although C.W. Hufeland's health book was first brought to Japan in 1824, a translation was not initially published. Hufeland was the foremost German scholar in Europe in the early part of the nineteenth century, and his book was translated into Japanese by teachers of Dutch learning at Bansho-shirabesho (the Tokugawa Shogunate's Western Learning Institute). The translators not only translated this book, but also made great efforts to explain the meaning of the words.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of playing mini-games of soccer for improvement of physical fitness. The subjects were 21 students at I junior high school (I Group) and 22 students at S junior high school (S Group). Group I played a mini-game with changed rules, whereas group S played the full game, each over a period of three weeks (6 physical education classes). Before and after the classes, skill tests (passing and dribbling), fitness tests (150m sprint with changing direction ; 25m×6 times, rest interval 30s), and a test game were conducted. In addition, an after-class questionnaire on knowledge, how to learn and skill of soccer was conducted. The main results were as follows : 1) The results of the passing and dribbling tests were improved significantly after classes using the mini-game. There was no significant improvement in the results of the first set of 150-m sprints with a change in direction after classes in both group, whereas the mean time for 6 sprints was improved significantly after classes in both groups. 2) There were no significant differences in the number of ball touches, heart rate or RPE in test games after classes in both groups, whereas the total movement distance was decreased significantly after classes using the full game. 3) In the questionnaire after the test game, almost every item on technique (coordination), physical fitness and mentality tended to have a higher score after classes using the mini game. On the other hand, after classes using the full game each mentality-related item tended to have a higher score, whereas items related to technique (coordination) and physical fitness tended to score the same or lower. 4) In the questionnaire after the class, there was no wide difference in knowledge of soccer between both groups, whereas items related to how to learn and skill of soccer tended to score higher in the former than in the latter. These results suggest that improvement of energy-related physical fitness could be obtained without compromising students' interest, volition and attitude regardless of whether they played the mini-game or the full game, although use of the mini-game led to an effective improvement of technique (coordination) without decreasing students' consciousness of how to learn soccer skills.
The present study analyzed how constraints in the form of either triangular passing or three players versus one (3 vs. 1) practice would affect soccer passing skills, and investigated how to effectively teach passing skill in the initial stage of learning. In general, novices develop skills during practice that require decision-making from technical practice. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that it is effective for novices to practice in complex circumstances. In this study, triangular passing was adopted as a task with minimal cognitive load, and 3 vs. 1, requiring the selection of a direction for ball control and passing according to circumstances to prevent the ball being stolen by a defender, was adopted as a task with a comparatively high cognitive load. The subjects were 10 soccer players and 10 non-soccer players who performed triangular passing and 3 vs. 1. Ten passes were selected from their performances. The direction of their shoulders, their movement time, the controlled ball position, and passing accuracy were then analyzed. The results revealed differences between the non-soccer players and soccer players mainly in the shoulder rotation angle, as well as changes in temporal motion structure, depending on environment and constraints. However, there were no significant differences in accuracy among the tasks. This suggests, therefore, that the training process of simple accumulation whereby triangular passing is mastered before advancing to a cognitive-loaded task such as 3 vs. 1 is not necessarily efficient, and that the diverse practice environment associated with 3 vs. 1 also has an effect on skill learning among non-soccer players, indicating that it is possible to elicit a movement similar to the targeted skill.