The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between acceleration and maximum sprinting ability, performance in various jumping tasks, and maximum leg strength in adolescent students. Sprinting ability was evaluated in terms of 50m sprinting velocity. The jumping tasks used for performance measurement included Standing five jump, Standing triple jump, Standing long jump, Counter movement jump and Rebound jump. Maximum leg strength was measured using isometric squats in which the angle of the knee was 135 deg. The results demonstrated that students with superior sprinting ability also showed high performance in the various jumping tasks and also had higher maximum leg strength. Among the various factors that affect sprinting ability, performance in one-leg alternation jumping, performance in jumping with both legs simultaneously, and leg strength were shown to have a high correlation in that order. In addition, the influence of both legs in the simultaneous jumping task and leg strength were considered to make a large contribution to acceleration sprinting ability. Similarly, the influence of one-leg alternation jumping performance was considered to make a large contribution to maximum sprinting ability. The findings of this study are considered useful for application to health and physical education classes.
In 1905 the Japanese Ministry of Education published a report from the research commitee on school gymnastics, play and games recommending Swedish gymnastics be adopted in schools. However it accepted that light exercises, which had been named “normal exercises” since 1886, could also be continued if modified. As a result, school teachers became confused as to whether light exercises or Swedish gymnastics had to be taught. Tetsubo taiso, meaning “iron bar exercises”, which had never been seen in Japan, were added to the syllabus revised in 1907, and adopted in 1910 by the attached middle school of Tokyo Higher Normal School. The aim of this article is to clarify the intention behind the adoption of tetsubo taiso by the school and its influence on the establishment of the 1913 syllabus authorized by the Ministry. The gymnastics stipulated in the syllabus was basically composed of both Swedish gymnastics and light exercises. In addition, tetsubo taiso was adopted as a component of German gymnastics because it was considered to facilitate better muscle strengthening than Indian club exercises. Indian club exercises involving handling of two clubs, as well as exercises on the Swedish gymnastic apparatus, were not deemed useful. The original intention of adopting tetsubo taiso was to reinforce the club exercises by continuous practice. However, tetsubo taiso was found not to strengthen muscles as well as club exercises because it was a type of wand exercise designed for improving posture focusing on the breast, in spite of the fact that its initial character, tetsu (“iron”), suggested a rigorous exercise employing a large, heavy bar. Therefore, its adoption by the school was considered a great mistake because its physical benefits were nowhere near as good as exercises on the Swedish gymnastic apparatus. However it was remarkable that light exercises were supported by the school, which was an experimental facility of the Higher Normal School that had been run as a core model for nationwide school instruction. Therefore the school gymnastics syllabus published in 1913 by the Ministry led to hesitation in prohibiting tools for light exercises, in spite of the fact that Swedish gymnastics formed the basis of the syllabus. Subsequently, tools for light exercises disappeared from schools soon after the syllabus was established.
The present study examined the differences in anticipatory performance and visual search strategy between skilled and novice soccer players. Fifteen skilled and 10 novice soccer players participated in the experiment. Their anticipatory performance was evaluated using a temporal occlusion paradigm. Both groups looked at film clips that had been recorded on a soccer field including only one offender (1 vs. 1 situation), or three offenders and two defenders (3 vs. 3 situation). Participants were required to predict the direction of passing from the offender. Each film clip was terminated at 500ms (T1), 200ms (T2), 100ms (T3), or 0ms (T4) before, or 100ms (T5) after the ball had been passed. Skilled players showed high accuracy under T1, T2 and T3 conditions in the 3 vs. 3 situation than novice players. By using an Eyemark Record System, we tested the visual search strategy involved. The skilled players had lower search rates and longer fixation durations just before the ball was passed. These results suggest that, in comparison with novices, skilled soccer players adopt a more appropriate and effective visual search strategy, which has been acquired through experience in complex situations specific to soccer play.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseball expertise and movement correction efficiency in a coincidence timing task that included unexpected changes in target velocity. In particular, we focused on the rate of movement timing correction that is applied to counter unexpected change in the velocity of a moving target under given time constraints. The participants comprised baseball experts (n=11) and novices (n=11). The task was to manually press a button coinciding with the arrival of a moving target, running on a straight trackway. The target moved from one end of the trackway at a constant velocity, and its velocity was increased or decreased in some trials when it reached the other end of the track with a moving target velocity change (TAVC) from 100 to 300ms. The differences in the rate of movement timing correction between the two groups were more evident when the velocity decreased than when it increased. The rate of movement timing correction for the experts was significantly higher than that for the novices under the 100ms and 300ms TAVC conditions. These results indicate that baseball experts can correct movement timing more efficiently than novices when velocity decreases ; this suggests that efficient movement timing correction in response to an unexpected velocity change is one of the characteristics of baseball expertise.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between plantar flexion angle and underwater dolphin kick performance using a simulation model, SWUM (SWimming hUman Model), in which the entire body was represented as a series of elliptic cylinders. Three unsteady fluid forces (added mass force, normal and tangential resistive force), buoyancy and gravity acting on the elliptic cylinders were computed from the shape and density of the cylinders, and from the joint motion for one cycle. Eight elite competitive swimmers participated in this study. Their body characteristics were measured and input as the simulation data (the shape and density of the elliptic cylinders). The joint motion data for one cycle were obtained by the 2-D DLT method during the underwater dolphin kick. To recreate the dynamics of the underwater dolphin kick in the simulation, three fluid coefficients, used to calculate the three unsteady fluid forces, were identified to minimize the difference between measured and simulated swimming velocity by the least-squares method. This identification was conducted for each of the input data. Simulations of the increased plantar flexion angle in the knee extension phase were executed with the optimal fluid coefficients for each swimmer in order to analyze the change in swimming velocity and thrust generated by the feet. The conclusions can be summarized as follows : (1) Swimming velocity during the underwater dolphin kick increased due to the increment of the thrust generated by the feet after an increase in the plantar flexion angle. (2) It was suggested that flexibility of plantar flexion is important, although it is not a determinant of underwater dolphin kick performance. (3) Swimmers with low flexibility of plantar flexion tended to achieve a faster swimming velocity after increasing the plantar flexion angle.
The purpose of this study was to gain practical wisdom about the individual tactics of prominent ball game players, and understand how players cultivate these strengths. To accomplish this, interviews were conducted with two goalkeepers and three shooters regarding handball shooting techniques. The interviewed players had excelled at the international level. Using qualitative methodology, the interviews were analyzed and the following points were identified. 1) To reveal useful tactics from the experiences of individual players, assessing their individual actions alone will not suffice. Interactions between a player and his opponents must be studied as well. 2) To take full advantage of the final moments preceding a shot, goalkeepers and shooters move with intentionality to react to opponents' actions. While paying close attention to the reactions of opponents, players adjust their movement accordingly. 3) Individual tactics among prominent players are not only the result of implementing actions based on sensory and cognitive perception. In addition, players make preconscious actions, continually adjusting their actions according to interactions with opponents.
Walking, jogging and sprinting occur repeatedly in daily life and also many sports events. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether the different kinematic characteristics of sprinting movements between sprint-skilled athletes and non-athletes are common to the those of walking and running movements. Nine male athletes and eleven untrained male students were asked to perform walking, fast-walking and jogging at set speeds (walking: 1.5 m/s; fast-walking, jogging: 2.4 m/s), and sprinting at maximal speed. Walking, fast-walking and jogging movements were recorded by digital video camera and sprinting movement by high-speed video camera. Kinematic variables obtained from video analysis were compared between two groups and within each group. Double support time of fast-walking and contact time of jogging and sprinting were significantly shorter in athletes. Minimal knee angles in jogging and sprinting were significantly larger, and knee angular displacements and hip angle at left foot contact in fast-walking, jogging and sprinting were significantly smaller in athletes. Touch down distances were significantly shorter in all movements and right hip joint angle was small at right foot contact in fast walking, jogging and sprinting. Leg scissors movement was a characteristic of athletes. During the support phase, non-athletes tended to flex not only the knee joint but also the hip joint at foot contact, while athletes tended to keep on extending hip and knee joints. These results suggest that differences exist between two groups and that there are common characteristics of the movements in each group, which could be technically significant from a coaching viewpoint.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of varying inter-contraction intervals on central and peripheral muscle fatigue during intermittent contractions. Six healthy men carried out maximal unilateral isometric plantar flexions 50 times, separated with an interval of 2, 4, 10, or 30 s. Supramaximal electrical stimuli (twitches) were imposed percutaneously on the tibial nerve during and after every 10th contraction to assess the level of voluntary activation. The surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG) and soleus (Sol) muscles. Plantar flexion torque and other parameters were maintained over contractions with 30-s intervals, while the torque as well as EMG activity of the MG, LG and Sol and the level of voluntary activation decreased significantly under conditions using 2-, 4-, and 10-s intervals. The amount of decrease in the parameters was greater for shorter intervals. With 2-s intervals, the twitch torque decreased significantly, the half-relaxation time of the twitch torque increased significantly, and the EMG mean power frequency of the MG and LG shifted significantly toward lower frequencies, whereas no significant changes were found under other conditions. These results indicate that there are differences in the contributions of central and peripheral fatigue, both of which are a function of inter-contraction interval.
This study sought to determine to what extent learners can grasp the movement processes in a given exercise after seeing a sequence of photographs. The study subjects consisted of 360 students ranging from elementary school grade 1 to senior high school grade 1, who were tested for their ability to discriminate the movements of horizontal bar exercises by observing photographic sequences and motion video illustrating these exercises, in order to determine the effects of items 1 to 5 below on their rate of correct response to testing. The results were as follows: 1. Many or few pictures: The rate of correct responses of group A's subjects who observed sequential photographs which have many pictures, was significantly higher than that of group B's subjects. 2. Age of the subjects: The rate of correct responses rose rapidly up to elementary school grade 3. It continued to increase thereafter, but more slowly. 3. Movement structure observed: In responses based on live movements, rates of correct response to “kip” were significantly lower than for the other two movements, suggesting that the movement structure of “kip” is more complex than that of the others. 4. Repeated observation: Comparisons of the rates of correct response to first and second observations of exercise showed that the difference in the rate of correct responses to “kip” obtained from the first to the second observations was significantly higher than for the other exercises. This may imply that the other two exercises were too easy to produce significant differences in relation to the number of observation times. 5. Experience and skill: There was a complementary relationship between “sports experience” and “skill in forward upward circling” among the subjects. More specifically, a positive response to either “experience” or “skill” was associated with a higher likelihood of a positive response for the other factor. This may imply that the rate of correct response was influenced by “observation experience” proportional to previous movements experience or skills training. The results above suggest that the ability to grasp the flow of movements from sequence of still pictures, are compositely formed by various abilities, that “acquisition of the skill” and “sports experience”, “observation experience”, “development of the recognition ability”, and so forth.
It has been considered that budo (the generic name for Japanese martial arts, reconstructed from bujitsu by the Meiji era) began to be spread overseas by elite budo experts from the 19th century, and this has now become a popularly held historical view. Meanwhile, bujitsu (the generic name for Japanese traditional martial arts) experts who had been overseas at that time were considered less significant. Because the difference between budo and bujitsu was fuzzy at the time, bujitsu was considered to lie within the same mission as budo in terms of being spread overseas. By focusing on Shotaro Fukuoka's mission in Paraguay, and particularly on the recipients there, this study reconsiders the mission of budo overseas by non-elite jiu-jitsu (one kind of bujitsu art) experts. The study highlighted three points. Firstly, in the local newspaper, jiu-jitsu was considered to be an effective discipline, both physically and mentally, similar to swordplay and gymnastics. Secondly, jiu-jitsu was adopted by the local sports club as self-defense training. The present study considers that adoption of jiu-jitsu was smooth in the sports club. Thirdly, jiu-jitsu was used for show at mixed martial arts contests organized by the sports club for entertaining the local public. The fact that jiu-jitsu was widely adopted by the local public in Paraguay suggests that Fukuoka's mission was not to seek a certain type of adoption but rather flexibility. Finally, the local sports club became not only a recipient of jiu-jitsu, but also a dispatcher by teaching public jiu-jitsu classes, which enabled various classes of people to participate in jiu-jitsu.
Objective: This study aimed to clarify the level of health-related QOL (HRQL) of local elderly persons, and to examine some strategies necessary for a fitness-oriented approach aimed at maintaining and improving QOL levels. Methods: The study subjects were 258 elderly persons (101 men, 157 women) living in S city in C prefecture. For the HRQL, the deviation score (50 as a standard value, 10 as standard variation) was calculated using the Short Form-36 (SF-36). This score is standardized with the following six subordinate scales: physical function, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social function, and mental health. To calculate the physical fitness level, a physical score obtained from 11 items that reflect activities which parallel daily living activities (APDL) of elderly persons was used. Results: The test results for men showed that HRQL gradually decreased with age, according to the subordinate scales that reflect both physical (physical function and bodily pain) and psychological aspects (social function). In the relationship between the physical score and the HRQL, a significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between subordinate scale scores for both aspects: physical and psychological. The test results for women showed that there was a tendency for only the physical function to decrease with age. No significant age-specific score difference was observed in other subordinate scales. With regard to physical fitness scores, a significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed only between the physical subordinate scale scores and the physical fitness scores, whereas no significant correlation was observed between psychological subordinate scores and physical fitness scores. Additionally, these correlations showed similar relationships even when control variables were taken into consideration. When comparing average national deviation scores with those of S city, the results showed low scores in each age class for both men and women, except for the subordinate scale of vitality. Conclusion: Physical fitness is a significant factor in maintaining and improving HRQL for older persons, for both men and women, and is a common issue when dealing with the decline in physical fitness associated with old age. Presently in S city, a good environment is being put into place for people to gain ‘meaningful life’ and ‘pleasure’ by focusing on construction of local health promotion facilities and developing local community activities. For the future, with the aim of maintaining and improving physical fitness in consideration of the physical aspects of HRQL, it is important to plan and implement specific measures related to local community activities that can provide ‘pleasure’ and ‘meaningful 1ife’ for elderly persons.
The purpose of this study was to reconstruct a cognitive appraisal scale for high school athletes (Shibukura and Mori, 2004), and to examine the scale's reliability and validity. The subjects were 1370 first and second year high school athletes (903 males and 467 females). They were required to complete a questionnaire that consisted of a cognitive appraisal scale and a stress-coping scale for high school athletes. In this study we tried to devise a cognitive appraisal scale that contained “threat” and “challenge” as a primary appraisal and “controllability” as a secondary appraisal. First, as a result of factor analysis, it was revealed that a cognitive appraisal scale for high school athletes consisted of the three factors mentioned above. In this way, the cognitive appraisal scale was reconstructed. Second, the reliability of the scale was examined through the split-half method and the test-retest method. Furthermore, the content validity and the factorial validity were verified. Finally, multiple regression analyses were performed in order to examine the relationship of cognitive appraisal and coping. It became clear that a cognitive appraisal scale explained stress-coping, and the scale's predictive validity was supported. Consequently, a cognitive appraisal scale for high school athletes that contained “challenge”, “threat” and “controllability” was reconstructed, and it was considered that this scale would contribute to clarification of the psychological stress process and effective stress management.
A postgraduate in physical education who has just acquired a teacher's license teaches gymnastics consisting of two units in elementary school. First, he performs team-teaching as an assistant teacher, and then teaches the entire class alone. This study aimed to clarify how the focus and the level of “reflection” of a postgraduate were transformed during teaching practice from receiving assistance from a mentor. The following changes in two points arose from the two teaching units. The first was that the categories for which knowledge of the teaching method and knowledge of the pupils had both been used arose newly concerning of the focus of “reflection”. The second was that the level of “reflection” changed towards a higher stage where it proposed improvement for teaching the next lesson from the stage where it had stayed in recognition of the problem. The following three factors were evident in bringing about the transformation of such “reflection”. Firstly a postgraduate were expected to fill different roles as teachers according to two units. Secondly he was expected to build a sufficient relationship with the mentor. Thirdly, the mentor always provided help in a non-direct way.
A study of the sports facilities service at Copenhagen University in Demark revealed the following features. It is used fully by the class, the extension courses, and extracurricular activities, even though only a few sport facilities are available. USG (Universitetets og øvrige højere læreanstalters Studenter-Gymnastik) is an organization in charge of sports services as extracurricular activities of University students, and is a very unique example of utilization of a few sports institutions for many students more effectively. USG offers many sports programs, about 300 courses being offered in the main season. Therefore, USG uses facilities outside the school too. There are many teams for the beginners in a variety of sports, and this offers more students the chance do sports. Because the activity time in each seesion is 60–120 minutes, most courses can offer a lot of courses. Participating students are required to pay an admission fee, and also pay the participation fee for the course. There is a subsidy from the university in addition to these admission and participation fees. This capital allows USG to secures many trainers and to manage facilities adequately.