The objective of this study was to propose an inductive model for the process of choking under pressure by qualitatively investigating factors related to choking and their relationships. Thirteen athletes (M=7, F=6) on the varsity in soft tennis, football, basketball, badminton, and archery teams participated in a semi-structured interview in which questions concerning the conditions, symptoms, causes, coping strategies, and social support for choking were asked for approximately one hour. The verbal protocols from the interview were analyzed by a Grounded-Theory Approach (GTA). The results of the GTA produced a model consisting of the following 13 categories: (1) stressor, (2) pre-competition condition, (3) individual characteristics, (4) irrational belief, (5) negative affect, (6) safe strategy, (7) verbal and behavioral changes, (8) activation of physiological arousal level, (9) physical fatigue, (10) changes in perception and motor control, (11) performance decrements, (12) coping strategy, and (13) vicious circle. This model emphasizes the categories of safe strategy, changes in perception and motor control, and physical fatigue, which are directly related to decrements in performance. In addition, the model points out the importance of the vicious circle of choking. Hypotheses proposed to explain the choking phenomenon in previous studies, such as those involving conscious control and processing resource shortages, focused on attentional changes. It is, however, necessary to consider other factors as well, such as the strategy, perceptual and movement characteristics, physical fatigue, and circulatory process in order to understand the mechanism of choking.
This paper is part of a study performed to clarify certain aspects of primitive thought related to physical education (PE), as outlined in the work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Some studies of Rousseau have focused on PE, but in my view these are not based on the positive foundation, and there is no reference to the term “physical education (éducation physique)” in his works. Nevertheless, it is possible to demonstrate connections between Rousseau and PE. It is evident that the “father of modern PE”, GutsMuths, was influenced by Rousseau, and many discussions in this field have, in fact, been based on Rousseau. This study focuses not on PE itself, but on a prototype concept that is recognizable in Rousseau's works. For this purpose, this paper attempts to analyze the context, especially public education focusing on the human body. In general, the terms “human body (corps)” and “education (éducation)” are understood as the elements of PE, and discussion of public education can be seen as one of the bases of Rousseau's thoughts about education, containing some important descriptions about the human body. The main points presented in this paper are as follow: Body exercise (exercices corporels) in public education, which has been accepted as the “PE of Rousseau”, is an approach to education with two purposes: moral and physical. Exercise is based on “negative education” aiming at the “child”, which is one of the main concepts of Rousseau's education thought. Furthermore, some value is placed on the whole process, where public education goes on to developing patriotism (l'amour de la patrie) in children (i.e. future citizens). Finally, exercise, a method of education, is balanced between the demand for public education and the restriction imposed by negative education.
In this study, we investigated a motor strategy for changing the amplitude or direction of movement during rapid extensions of the elbow joint. We focused on changes in the triphasic electromyographic (EMG) pattern, i.e. the first agonist burst (AG1), the second agonist burst (AG2) and the antagonist burst (ANT), in relation to changes in the amplitude and direction of movement required after the initiation of movement. Ten seated subjects extended the elbow 40 degrees in the Basic task and 80 degrees in the Wide task, and then returned to the starting position after reaching for a target in the Basic task (Return task). The tasks were performed under two conditions: while performing a predetermined task (SF condition), and while performing a task in response to a visual stimulus after movement commencement (ST-BW condition—the subject performed either the Basic task or the Wide task; ST-BR condition—the subject performed either the Basic task or the Return task). Kinematic and temporal parameters, and EMG activity from the agonist (triceps brachii) and the antagonist (biceps brachii) muscles were recorded. Comparing the Wide task with the Basic task, the onset latency of AG2 increased, and the duration in all bursts increased. In the ST-BW condition, the onset latency of AG1 and AG2 and the duration of AG1 increased compared with the SF condition. Comparing the Return task with the Basic task, the onset latency of ANT and AG2 increased. The duration of all bursts and the average EMG (a-EMG) of ANT in the Return task increased compared with the Basic task. There was no difference between the SF and ST-BR conditions. It is concluded that the motor strategy for changing the amplitude of initiated movement is to control the duration of AG1 depending on the amplitude of movement in order to change the timing to stop movement, and that the motor strategy for changing the direction of initiated movement is to increase the duration and amplitude of ANT in order to stop at the target and flex continuously.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of locomotion in infants by continually observing the process of transition from walking to running ability. The subjects were 8 healthy boys and girls aged from 10 to 18 months. Their locomotion with maximal effort was videotaped using two VTR cameras operating at 60 fps. Three-dimensional coordinates of endpoint segments of the body were obtained using the DLT method. Kinematic parameters for analysis of locomotion were mean speed, step length, step frequency, and step width. In the process of transition from walking to running, the mean speed increased from 1.44 m/s to 1.72 m/s, and the step length and step length/body height ratio also increased from 34.4 cm to 41.9 cm, from 42.9% to 51.7%, and from 3.96 Hz to 4.22 Hz, respectively, although the increase was not significant. We found that there was a leap was involved in the process of progression from walking to running; there was a non-support phase on the leap in one step, and a non-support phase in at least two steps during the running motion. The mean speed of the leap was similar to that of the running motion, and the mean step length and step length/body height ratio were similar to those in the running motion. The mean step frequency was lower than for both the walking and running motions. We speculate that in infants the leap is repeated until it stabilizes into a running motion, and we consider such leaping to be part of the development of the transfer movement during progression from walking to running ability.
The present study investigated the area covered by soccer goalkeepers during diving motions (reaching area). Goalkeepers were asked to dive towards the ball in accordance with a directional indicator that presented random electronic displays. To examine the characteristics of goalkeepers' diving motion toward each position of the ball, the time needed to reach the ball (reaching time) was measured, as well as the velocity and trajectory of the diving motion. Comparison of the reaching time for each ball height (upper, medium, and low) when each goalkeeper dived for only a short distance revealed statistically significant differences in attempts to stop the ball, the times increasing in the order medium, upper, low height. When a goalkeeper dived longer distances, there was a significant difference in the reaching time, which increased in the order medium, low, and upper height. No significant differences in reaching time were observed between the left and right sides for the same distances and heights. These results suggest that for short distances, more time is needed for relatively lower heights, whereas for longer distances, more time is needed to reach balls at relatively high levels. In terms of the velocity of the diving motion, when the center point between the shoulders was measured with the ball at longer distances, there was a trend for an acceleration phase to start 0.3 s after the directional indicator had been shown. It slowed temporarily at 0.5 s and then resumed. Meanwhile, when attempting to stop the ball at shorter distances, there was a trend for only one phase of acceleration without any stepping action (i.e., taking a running start). Moreover, temporal changes in the center position of the hand (the third metacarpophalangeal joint) that touched the ball were used to create a diagram depicting the estimated range of time needed to reach the ball. This diagram was able to clarify differences in reaching area with respect to ball height and distance.
Four types of flop technique are used in the high jump: “power flop A,” “power flop B,” “speed-power flop,” and “speed flop” (Watanabe, 2007). Most Japanese jumpers use the speed flop (Sakamoto, 1994), and this type of flop is the theme of this study. There are many variations of the speed flop, even among world-class jumpers (Killing, 1989, 1994). Therefore, researchers suggest that there is not just one universal technique for the high jump; instead, there are different individual styles that are optimal for each jumper (Viitasalo et al., 1982; Killing, 1995b). However, coaches cannot give technical training effectively without ideal models (Tidow, 1981). Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose ideal models for the technical training of speed floppers by classifying the speed flop into subcategories of technique. Sixteen world-class high jumpers using the speed flop were selected as the subjects of this study. The technical form of the subjects was then classified based on qualitative analysis of their movement structure. The results were as follows: 1) There were two types of take-off among the subjects. 2) The approach-run of subjects could also be classified into two types. 3) Correlations existed between the type of take-off and the type of approach-run. Based on these results, the speed flop can be classified into two types, and these can be proposed as ideal models for technical training of speed floppers. With structured instructional management of these two types of speed flop, coaches can offer more effective technical training to individual athletes. Moreover, since differences in ideal models affect the goal setting of fitness training and the type or form of training that needs to be done (Tancic, 1985b), it is concluded that classification of technique is essential for successful training in the high jump.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the elements that constitute an effective environment for passing practice in soccer by analyzing the relationship between player age range as an organism constraint and the width of the area in which the ball is possessed in a three vs. one (3 vs. 1) task constraint. The task consisted of passing the ball employing one or two touches to maintain possession in a 3 vs. 1 formation in three different square-shaped areas measuring 8m×8m, 10m×10m and 12m×12m. The participants were divided according to age, and categorized as under (U)-10 (fourth grade elementary school), U-12 (sixth grade elementary school), U-14 (second grade junior school) and U-16 (first grade high school). The following criteria were then investigated: passing performance (passing success rate and the number of passing sequences), speed of the passing movement, support available to the player, and decision-making about the passing direction. It was found that U-10 players performed worse in the task than players in the other age groups. Moreover, passing speed was affected by the width of the play area for the U-10 and U-12 players, but not for the U-14 and U-16 players. The distance between the support players was the same for all age groups; however, for the U-10 players, the support angles were more acute than those for the other age groups, thus preventing the U-10 players from adopting useful supporting positions. Furthermore, it was found that the width of the play area did not affect passing performance, but did affect the speed of the passing movement in the 3 vs. 1 task. The distance and the angle of support differed among the players in the different age groups. It is concluded that a wider area in the 3 vs.1 possession task creates easier choices for U-10 and U-12 players, leading to easy understanding of the passing motions. For the U-14 and U-16 players, making the area narrower is effective for maintaining a higher 3 vs.1 possession level. From these perspectives, considering the width of the area for 3 vs.1 possession is important in relation to the developmental stage of soccer players.
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the qualitative changes and controlling factors involved in ball sports. The study expands the dynamical system theory to include collective behavior and offers suggestions about methods of teaching ball sports. Positional data for field players and for the ball were digitized from videotape recordings of six-player field hockey games at two levels: adult and youth teams. Four moving radii were defined by distances from the center of the polar coordinates of the attack-side goal to the ball (Ball), the mean position of all field players (ALL), the mean position of field players for the offensive team (OF), and the mean position of field players for the defensive team (DF). Then, the relative distance between the ball and all players (Ball – ALL) and between teams (OF – DF) were analyzed with regard to successful and unsuccessful attack situations, which were defined on the basis of the beginning and ending positions of the ball. Results from analysis of the adult game revealed a bifurcation in the relative distances between the ball and all players (Ball – ALL), with an increase in the variance of Ball – ALL dependent on a decrease in the relative distances between teams (OF – DF). These results suggest that the collective behavior seen in ball sports has aspects of phase transition and critical fluctuation, which have been identified in individual movements such as bimanual coordination. Therefore, the present findings suggest the importance of teaching methods that facilitate increased variation in ball position in cases where opposing teams are in close proximity.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education program matched to the stages of change for exercise of the transtheoretical model (TTM) in a group of male university students. The participants were 239 male university freshmen (121 students in the intervention group and 118 in the control group). Two tasks were assigned for the intervention group. The first was conducted during class time, and the participants completed the task based on behavioral science. In this task, the participants selectively worked their own stages of change for exercise. For participants at the precontemplation stage, we set assignments to clarify that they had a sedentary lifestyle. For participants at the contemplation stage, we set tasks to prompt them to think about the pros and cons of an active lifestyle. For participants at the preparation stage, we set tasks to produce rewards for achievement of their personal goals. For participants at the active stage, we set tasks to encourage the use of social support from people around them. For participants at the maintenance stage, we set tasks to encourage change in their environment to maintain a physically active lifestyle. The second assignment was a practical one conducted outside class time. This involved self-monitoring of daily physical activities. The participants were assessed for the stages of change for exercise, physical activity level, exercise self-efficacy, and decisional balance for exercise before and after attendance. The intervention group showed a greater increase in the scores for daily physical activity, and maintained their score for decisional balance to a better degree than the control group. Additionally, in the intervention group, the stages of change for exercise progressed significantly after attendance as compared with the control group.
The aim of this study was to enhance the game performance of player S, the setter for the Ts University men's volleyball team, who was having problems with respect to “using combination attacks purposefully to limit the number of blocks by the opposition”-which is one of the main responsibilities of the setter-by using the “Performance Evaluation Criteria for Setters”. In order to achieve this aim, we analyzed the game performance of player S for the fall season. Based on this analysis, we derived some goals for improvement that were required for combination attack setting. Next, we worked on theoretical issues in player S's game in the light of what we had clarified. This corrected combination attack setting method was then put into practice in the fall season league games. We then examined the game performance of player S in the fall and spring seasons, and compared the results. This analysis showed that, when setting for combination attacks, those in which the hitters do not cross paths and where the setter was in the front row with only two front row hitters had a significantly higher rate of compliance with the evaluation criteria in the fall season than in the spring season. It therefore followed that there was a significant increase in the rate of compliance with the evaluation criteria for all combination attacks. As a result, it can be concluded that this study's aim of improving the game performance of player S with respect to “using combination attacks purposefully to limit the number of blocks by the opposition,” using the “Performance Evaluation Criteria for Setters”, was successful.
This study investigated the characteristics of the world's top archery athletes, focusing on the amount of time spent on every phase of shooting. Case studies were conducted on the Recurve men's individual gold medalist and the Recurve women's individual gold medalist; the mean time and the coefficient of variation of the mean for each phase of their shooting were calculated and compared with those of all their opponents from the 1/64 Elimination Round to the Finals. Additionally, the mean time for each phase of shooting was calculated for every match, and then these values were compared with one other. It was found that the aiming time—the time spent aiming at the target's center before shooting—of both the male and female individual gold medalists was distinctly different from those of their opponents. The male gold medalist's coefficient of variation of the mean aiming time was smaller than those of his opponents in all matches from the 1/64 Elimination Round to the Finals, except in the 1/16 Elimination Round. The aiming time of the female gold medalist was shorter than those of her opponents in all matches from the 1/64 Elimination Round to the Finals. Both medalists' aiming times remained constant throughout all of their matches. The above results suggest that the aiming time of the male and female individual archery gold medalists is a distinct characteristic of their shooting technique.
The purpose of this case study was to clarify how pupils improve the quality of a learning group, gakushu shudan, while learning the contents of a physical education class, and to examine how a teacher should instruct pupils in order to improve the quality of learning. The gakushu shudan is a concept that aims to promote integral acquisition of subject contents and subsequent character formation in a class. The class study was conducted using short sequences of movement to accompany a story and a song, shudan ohanashi mat for second grade elementary school children. In the shudan ohanashi mat class, two learning activities were conducted. First, pupils discussed the constitution of the short movement sequences. Secondly, pupils synchronized the movement with another member of the group. We then extracted two groups for analysis in detail: one that showed a marked difference in motor skills among the group members and another that showed few differences in motor skills. We then conducted three types of analysis. First, we examined the general content learned by pupils by classification of the learning logs. Secondly, we examined the formative evaluation of the children's group activity through analysis of a “making friends” questionnaire completed by the pupils. Thirdly, we analyzed the utterance of these pupils through “discourse analysis” of characteristic classes. The “discourse analysis” revealed that differences not only in motor skills but also the social background of the pupils affected the formation of the learning group. In a group of 7, D (a girl with low motor skills) began to learn positively with other members of the group when she acquired technical recognition. In a group of 8, a change in the manner of H (a girl with high motor skills) generated good communication between the group members. We conclude that in the early period of formation of a learning group, the following three factors appear to have a positive influence. 1) Teacher's guidance in allowing pupils to share means of recognition. 2) Teacher's guidance in allowing pupils to interact positively. 3) Teacher's approach to group organization by selecting the pupils of democratic nature as leaders.
This study assessed physical activity and exercise levels, and their relationship with selected health factors such as health concerns, self-assessed health status, and health behavior, in college students. A cross-sectional self-reported questionnaire based on the widely used CDC/ACSM and ACSM guidelines were used for this purpose. The questionnaire survey was conducted among 3,596 college freshmen (mean age, 18.5±0.7 years). The survey collected data on physical activity and exercise levels and certain factors related to health, such as concern about health, overall health status, rest, stress, breakfast, and nutritional balance. The study participants were divided into four groups based on the results of the survey: DN (did not meet the CDC/ACSM and ACSM criteria; comprising 46.7% of the males and 61.3% of the females); M (met the CDC/ACSM criteria; 29.1% of the males and 25.7% of the females); V (met the ACSM criteria; 16.4% of the males and 7.8% of the females); MV (met both the CDC/ACSM and ACSM criteria; 7.8% of the males and 5.2% of the females). Compared with the results of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey in the United States, in 1995, the percentage of participants in the V group in this survey was lower, whereas that in the M group was higher. For the DN group, it is assumed that the percentages recorded in this survey were lower than those in the United States survey. Most people in the DN group—931 (87.7%) of 1,061 males, and 686 (84.7%) of 810 females—reported that they will begin physical activity or exercise, or are already active; however these group members did not meet the guidelines. For males, scores reflecting concerns about health, overall condition, breakfast, and nutritional balance were higher in the DM group than in the DN group; for females, these scores were higher in the DM group than in the DN group. Additional research is required to ascertain methods for improving the physical activity and exercise habits of college students.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mental practice on the accomplished performance of a dart-throwing task when the task could not be physically practiced during the physical activity rest intervals. The participants were 19 male and 11 female university undergraduates and graduate school students. Two learnining periods—a physical activity phase and a physical activity rest phase—were set up as experimental conditions. First, in the physical activity phase, the participants were randomly assigned to one of two learning conditions: Combination Practice (CP: n=16) in which both physical and mental practice were performed, and Physical Practice conditions (PP: n=14) in which only physical practice was performed. Then, in the physical activity rest phase, the participants were assigned to one of four practice groups: (1) the use of mental practice coupled with physical practice in the physical activity phase, and the use of mental practice in the physical activity rest phase (CP-MP; n=7); (2) the use of mental practice coupled with physical practice in the physical activity phase, and no practice in the physical activity rest phase (CP-NP; n=7); (3) the use of physical practice in the physical activity phase, and the use of mental practice in the physical activity rest phase (PP-MP; n=8); (4) the use of physical practice in the physical activity phase, and no practice in the physical activity rest phase (PP-NP; n=8). The results showed that the CP-MP and PP-MP groups performed better in the retention test than the CP-NP and PP-NP groups in terms of the accuracy and consistency of the dart-throwing task. These results indicate that dart-throwing performance can be retained by mental practice for three weeks during the physical activity rest phase.