Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 56 , Issue 2
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
Original investigations
  • Yosuke Hayashi
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 271-286
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: June 07, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the present study, an attempt was made to examine the theoretical basis of the mind-body relationship in the context of physical education. The discussion centred on the mind-body theory of Rene Descartes (1596-1650) and the theory of “Dualicisme,” which are well known in the extant literature. In the field of physical education philosophy, the mind-body relationship continues to draw interest, but to date there is no common academic consensus among researchers. Accordingly, it seems informative to examine the fundamental mind-body relationship from the philosophical perspective of Descartes.
    According to Descartes, the ontological state of mind and body is “substantial union,” which considers the substance of both mind and body and unites them closely. The interaction between mind and body, on the other hand, is understood according to the “primitive notions” as “the union of mind and body.” Only this idea of “the union of mind and body” can be retained, it allows a full appreciation of the nature of physical education, and a better understanding of the mind-body relationship. Consideration should also be focused on Descartes himself, who has long been misunderstood in the philosophy of physical education, and more enlightened discussion can ensue by elaborating on his mind-body theory.
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  • Shinnosuke Matsuo, Hiroaki Fujii, Yasushi Kariyama, Keigo Ohyama Byun
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 287-295
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: June 07, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Changes in the activity of hip adductor muscles with increased running speed were investigated in 4 male sprinters (personal best for 100 m: 10.58±0.26 s). The subjects were instructed to run at three different speeds (3-4 m/s, 6-8 m/s and 9- m/s). The surface electromyograms (EMGs) of 10 muscles around the hip joint were recorded, and whole-body motions were also filmed with a high-speed video camera (150 fps).
    Regardless of running velocity, the adductor longus (AL) showed activity concomitant with the rectus femoris when the hip joint was in extension. This suggested that the AL functioned as a hip flexor. On the other hand, the adductor magnus (AM) showed activity when the hip joint was flexed, suggesting that the AM assisted hip extensors such as the gluteus maximus.
    During high-speed sprinting, the AL was also activated when the hip joint was flexed. Similarly, the AM also showed activity when the hip joint was extended, corresponding to the latter half of the support phase. During the support phase, the AM may serve to stabilize the frontal plane by co-contracting with hip abductors such as the gluteus medius and tensor fasciae latae. Furthermore, the AL and AM showed increased activity while the hip was fully flexed and extended. This remarkable muscle activity around the flexion-extension reversal point during high-speed sprinting may stabilize the hip joint so that it resists dislocative force through the unique anatomical features of the hip adductor muscles, i.e. “shunt-” rather than “spurt-type” architectural characteristics.
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  • Toru Takahashi
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 297-311
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: July 26, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate the concept of “experience” and “education” presented by J. Dewey in order to better understand the concept of “sport as experience”. Dewey's ideas of “interaction” and “continuance” are the representative concepts upon which his theory of “experience” is based. Such experience may arise from the interaction between an organism and its environment, and is linked to past, present and future experience. Through this concept, Dewey explains the process of experience and concludes that education proceeds through a stack of experience. The present study also considers the concept of “experience” as applied to “experience of sport” in terms of both process and substance, and subsequently the relationship between sport and the education process.
    “Experience of sport” arises from constant interaction between a moving body and its environment, and the process has two stages: the “first experience” and the “secondary experience”. The former stage involves direct experience and the latter is a reflective stage. Substantially, “experience of sport” is a type of consciousness experienced by individuals when they interact. In other words, it cannot be understood by an observer, but only through individual experience.
    Individuals may acquire “experience of sport” from every other experience and gain an overall picture through self-reflection. This “an experience” proposed by Dewey. A significant stock of sport experience can be gained over time, and this experience is held over thereafter. Such a process of consecutively reconstituted experience, i.e. the process of development through experience, is the educational process envisaged by Dewey. Thus, “experience of sport” allows for the possibility of educational development, so that individuals may gain new experiences and undergo successive developmental processes. The concept of “an experience of sport” is crucial for appreciating the importance of sport education and for extending the avenues of human education.
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  • Masato Iwami, Tomohiro Kizuka
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 313-323
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: July 16, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study aimed to examine the difference in upper limb movement characteristics between basketball players and novices during the speed-increase phase in a basketball bouncing task. Two-dimensional video analysis and electromyography were used to clarify the motor control with increase in bouncing speed. The participants were 9 college basketball players and 6 novice subjects. The basketball players had approximately 10 years of experience in playing basketball and were now in training for approximately 5 days per week in their college basketball team. The novices had learned how to play basketball in their physical education class, but the ball bouncing movement was not a familiar task for them. The subjects were instructed to synchronize their movement with an external audio signal (100 bpm), and to change the bouncing speed as quickly as possible when a LED signal was lighted. During the bouncing task, two-dimensional body kinematics (joint angular displacements) were measured using a high-speed camera at 100 frames/s. Electromyographic changes were measured by surface electromyograms (EMGs) obtained at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist muscles; the co-contraction index (CI) was calculated on the basis of the activities of the flexor and extensor muscles of each joint.
    We found that the amplitude of angular displacement in the elbow and wrist joints was greater in the basketball players than in the novices. In each group, EMG activities, especially those of the elbow and wrist muscles, showed different changes with increased bouncing speed. In the speed-increase phase, the wrist muscles CI in the basketball players was less than that in the novices. The results of this study indicate that basketball players bounce the ball with a greater range of motion and less joint stiffness. In contrast, novices have a more restricted range of motion and higher co-contraction in the speed-increase phase. Thus it appears that basketball players can control a ball with a longer ball contact time and lower co-contraction, and can produce a more effective bouncing movement in the speed-increase phase.
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  • Yasuko Tsuneyuki, Yasuo Yamaguchi, Kazuo Takaori
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 325-341
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: July 26, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing the stages of exercise behavior change and exercise self-efficacy in older adults, and to examine a hypothetical model which composed of health and socio-psychological factors. The stage of exercise behavior change was positioned as a dependent variable and exercise self-efficacy was settled as an intervening variable. Independent variables were consisted of health factors and socio-psychological factors. Health factors were consisted of three variables; walking, health behavior, and cognition of health status. Socio-psychological factors were consisted of three variables; outcome expectations, human support, and enjoyment for exercise and sport in middle-age. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Data were collected from a sample of 518 students of senior colleges for the elderly people in Osaka from July to September in 2007. The questionnaires were distributed to students and they were collected after accomplishment by a researcher. Four hundred and twelve data (male=195, female=217) were analyzed in the study, while the return rate was 79.5%. The main findings were as follows: 1) stage of exercise behavior change was directly affected by human support in older adults. Exercise self-efficacy in male sample and health behavior in female sample were significant variables for the stages of exercise behavior change, 2) exercise self-efficacy was significantly influenced by cognition of health status, walking, and enjoyment in middle-age. Human support in female sample was influencing exercise self-efficacy, 3) enjoyment in middle-age was influencing the present human support and cognition of health status in older adults. Outcome expectations and health behavior in male sample and walking in female sample were affected by enjoyment, 4) in male sample, cognition of health status, walking, and enjoyment accounted for 23.9% of the variance in exercise self-efficacy. Exercise self-efficacy and human support accounted for 42.0% of the variance in the stages of exercise behavior change, 5) in female sample, human support, cognition of health status, walking, and enjoyment accounted for 42.5% of the variance in exercise self-efficacy. Human support and health behavior accounted for 23.9% of the variance in the stages of exercise behavior change, 6) enjoyment was influencing the stages of exercise behavior change indirectly mediating human support in older adults, and 7) there were obvious gender differences in the effects on the stages of exercise behavior change and exercise self-efficacy in older adults. The validity of the hypothetical model was approximately verified in male sample.
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  • Chanwoo Lee
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 343-357
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 05, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Korean traditional archery clubs, there are unique cultures and old customs that are not found anywhere else. This paper tries to trace the origin of these cultures and customs by focusing on Sage (Archery Fraternity), especially the Deokyuge fraternity that existed as the central operating body of Deokyu archery clubs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the true nature and social functions of Sage, through a historical consideration of the organization of Deokyuge.
    The findings were as follows:
    1.  Deokyuge was established to maintain Deokyu archery clubs through financial support.
    2.  The operation of Deokyuge showed repeated break-up and resumption owing to lack of funds.
    3.  Through money-lending businesses they obtained funds. The profits were used to repair archery facilities, hold regular archery competitions and for mutual aid.
    4.  To sustain the fraternity perpetually, they formulated detailed regulations and established a strict mutual aid system.
    5.  To enter the club, members had to pay an entrance fee after being judged for their personality, job and wealth.
    6.  Rights and duties are defined by regulation and position. Executive members enjoyed splendor and privileges.
    7.  The most important function of the fraternity was to support social success by passing the national officer certification examination. The exam comprised several kinds of archery and horseback riding.
    8.  The fraternity also promptly met the needs of the times. The main function also changed periodically. After abolition of the traditional officer certification examination, the main function of the fraternity was changed to finance and administration within the village.
    9.  After the prevalence of modern banking and the development of modern society, Sage declined for a while. However, through conversion of traditional archery into a competitive sport and modernization of the Sage, the fraternity was again invigorated.
    10.  Most of the old customs and culture of current Korean archery originated from the fraternity.
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  • Yoshifumi Hishida
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 359-371
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 24, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study investigated the transformation that has occurred in Muay Thai, a traditional martial art in Thailand, as a result of gambling. Muay Thai is a sport that incorporates religious ceremony. In Thailand, gambling has been conventionally illegal. The rules of Muay Thai have not been changed since Rajadamunan stadium was established in 1945, and Muay Thai has since developed into a national amusement and become a modern sport. However, various gambling styles linked to Muay Thai still continue to exist. Such gambling comprises three types: 1. Gambling on matches, where all the prize money is placed in bets. 2. Gambling through bookmakers. 3. Gambling based on odds, with no restriction on who gambles and how much money is staked. Since the late 1970s, however, gambling based on odds has increased, and this has resulted in a change of Muay Thai game tactics. Currently, most of the audiences coming to Muay Thai stadiums are gamblers who use odds to bet. For this study, data were collected through fieldwork conducted at Muay Thai stadiums in Thailand. Data were also gathered from Muay Thai magazines. These data have been reconstructed in order to examine how Muay Thai has changed in response to gambling, and the results indicate that the game tactics of Muay Thai have changed due to odds gambling. As a consequence, Muay Thai has become not only just a martial art, but also a sport for gambling.
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  • Atsushi Nakazawa
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 373-390
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 24, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, teachers not only teach students inside the classroom, but also manage extracurricular sports activities outside the classroom. This system of extracurricular sports activities is a distinctive feature of school education in Japan, and is totally dependent on the voluntary attitude of teachers. Although extracurricular sports activities are not included in the Course of Study, teachers are positively willing to manage them as school educational activities. Why should this be so? Furthermore, the contents of extracurricular sport activities seem to have no relationship with school education. Then, how do teachers identify sports as school educational activities? In order to examine these questions, this study focused on teachers' interpretations of difficulties in combining sports with education, as these difficulties ultimately determine whether teachers are positively willing to manage extracurricular sports activities. In managing school educational activities, teachers inevitably encounter certain difficulties (e.g. coping with diversity among students). How, then, do teachers interpret these difficulties?
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the reasons why teachers are positively willing to manage extracurricular sport activities in Japan by analyzing their interpretations of difficulties with combining sports and education. The data were gathered by fieldwork at a public junior high school in the Kanto area. At this school, 12 teachers who managed extracurricular sport activities were observed and interviewed. Among them, a male teacher managing the rugby club was the most positive. This study focused on this individual as a case example to examine the reasons for his positive attitude.
    This teacher divided the students into a high-skill and a low-skill groups in order to coach them efficiently. However, that division caused high-skill students to bully those with a low skill level, which obviously was not desirable in educational terms. However, the teacher interpreted the presence of a bully as a good opportunity to educate his students. Therefore, this difficulty was “solved” by the interpretation of this particular teacher.
    In conclusion, various individual teachers' interpretations can “solve” certain difficulties and allow them to combine sports with education, allowing them to positively manage extracurricular sports activities as school educational activities without any conflict.
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  • Fumio Takizawa
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 391-402
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: September 08, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to specify the role of the low-rank acticept in human bodily thinking from a phenomenological viewpoint. An acticept is the gestalt of a percept with time factor and is a complex comprising a percept of action and phenomena resulting from the action. The word “acticept” is a compound of “action plus percept”, and “percept” means the content of perception. For the purpose of this study, the concept of a low-rank acticept is clarified by examining human bodily thinking as compared with verbal thinking.
    First, the author defines the problem, and then discusses the concept of the acticept as perception. On this basis, the formation and the role of a low-rank acticept is discussed, and the relationship between acticept and low-rank acticept is considered further. From this relationship, the prospect of classifying low-rank acticepts is demonstrated. As a result, the author describes the role of the low-rank acticept in human bodily thinking.
    The conclusions made are as follows. Human bodily thinking has a logical system different from that of verbal thinking. This type of thinking is necessary in order to create an acticept, and this becomes possible by gaining a low-rank acticept based on the logic of perception. From this low-rank acticept, image, explanation, and data are translated into our own practice, and we are able to realize each action. It is necessary to translate even procedural explanations into a low-rank acticept. These low-rank acticepts themselves continue being refined in such a way as to have wider applications, just as a word becomes precise.
    Therefore, in gymnastics lessons, it is necessary to pay attention to the originality of human bodily thinking, which is indispensable to movement practice, and furthermore to the individual low-rank acticept when teaching movement. Teachers should be able to transfer the low-rank acticept itself in order to make gymnastics lessons fruitful, not only theoretically but also practically.
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  • Ryosuke Shigematsu, Rei Nakanishi
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 403-412
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: September 08, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Aim: Less frequent exercise intervention may protect frail elderly persons from physical and psychological burdens and help minimize expenditure on human and economic resources by local governments. However, very few studies have explored the effects of the frequency of such intervention, which aims to help frail elderly persons become accustomed to voluntary exercise. Furthermore, the number of studies of functional fitness, visual attention, and quality of life (QOL) has been limited. To address this research gap, the present study compared the effects of less frequent and more frequent exercise intervention on exercise adherence, functional fitness, visual attention, and QOL.
    Methods: Thirty-nine extremely frail adults participated in this study. Depending on the distance between the intervention facilities and the participants' homes, the participants were assigned to either a weekly session group (N=14; higher frequency: HF) or a fortnightly session group (N=25; lower frequent: LF). Participants in both groups attended 90-minute sessions comprising daily home exercises and behavioral management over 3 months. They were also asked to maintain an exercise log. Adherence to home exercise, functional fitness, visual attention, and QOL of the two groups were then compared.
    Results: During the 3-month intervention period, 2 participants in the LF group and 3 in the HF group dropped out. At the end of the intervention period, no significant inter-group differences were found in either session attendance or adherence to home exercises. ANOVA revealed significant time effects on functional fitness (tandem standing balance, standing and sitting 5 times in quick succession, sitting and reaching out) and QOL (bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role (emotional), mental health). A significant group-by-time interaction was found in QOL (social functioning), indicating that the HF group improved to a greater degree than the LF group, although the baseline in the HF group was significantly lower. For visual attention, neither a significant time effect nor interaction was found.
    Conclusion: Fortnightly intervention that involves motivating a frail elderly individual to exercise at home can help ensure that he or she adheres to home exercises and improves functional fitness and QOL. Similar effects are observed for weekly interventions, which might be required for frail elderly persons whose social functioning needs to be improved.
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  • Chin Hsiang-Pin
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 413-422
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: September 15, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of the present study was to explore the correlation between women's physical education in schools and foot binding in Taiwan during the initial stage of Japanese colonization (1895-1906). Based on historical materials such as Taiwan Nichinichi Shinpo (Taiwan Daily Newspaper), Taiwan Kyoikukai Zasshi (Taiwan Education Magazines), and Taiwan Kyoiku Enkakushi (Taiwan Education Development Magazines), we tried to clarify how Japanese colonists carried out physical education in the period before 1906 when female students still had bound feet. The proportion of women with bound feet was as high as 60%, and this led to practical difficulties with physical education. Because of these difficulties, physical education was replaced by suitable games (including a form of dancing activity; for example, marching play (Kōshin-yūgi) and facial expression play (Hyōjō-yūgi) between 1895 and 1906. The practice of games in physical education was thus firmly established during this period. The second affiliated Kokugo school (Japanese school), as a role-model school in Taiwan, always practiced games and general gymnastics in consideration of foot-binding. Thus, the teaching experience during this time can be viewed as an embryonic period for the general gymnastics that emerged later.
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  • Takeshi Nagasawa, Kiyoshi Shiroishi
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 423-433
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: September 15, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we examined the effects of static stretching (SST) for different durations on muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) and muscle blood flow (BFmus) in the stretched muscles during and after SST. Nine healthy male subjects received passive SST of the wrist flexors. SST was performed for 10, 30, and 60 s. The StO2 and BFmus in the forearm flexor muscles were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. BFmus was determined from the rate of increase in total hemoglobin during venous occlusion. StO2 decreased immediately at the start of stretching, and thereafter kept decreasing until the end of SST. StO2 replenished rapidly after completion of SST and remained above the resting level during the recovery period. For all 3 durations of SST, the peak value of StO2 during the recovery period after SST showed a significant increase above the resting value (p<0.01) (10-s SST: 72.5±2.8%, 30-s SST: 72.5±1.8%, 60-s SST: 73.0±2.2%). There was no significant difference in the increase in the peak values of StO2 after SST among the 3 SST durations. For all durations of SST, BFmus after SST increased significantly above the resting level (p<0.01) (10-s SST: 2.6±1.2 fold, 30-s SST: 2.8±1.6 fold, 60-s SST: 2.9±1.0 fold), but there was no significant difference in the increase of BFmus after SST among the 3 SST durations. These results show that SST of wrist flexors for 10 s, 30 s, and 60 s induced an increase in StO2 and BFmus after SST, but the increase in StO2 and BFmus was not affected by SST duration.
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  • Tomomi Ishida
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 435-449
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: September 15, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Kentaro Sasaki (1923-1994) was a physical education teacher who introduced a new style of teaching involving essay writing (seikatsu-tsuzurikata) in the early years of the new physical education movement in Japan during the postwar period. He is also recognized as a physical education practitioner who was one of the first to place great value on pupil cognition. The main purpose of the present study was to clarify the evolution of his ideas on how to use essay writing and to improve the cognition of his pupils. For this purpose, the author studied mainly Sasaki's practice records from 1952 to 1955, printed in his book entitled “taiiku-no-ko”.
    In his practice records, it can be recognized that he promoted pupil cognition both in daily life guidance and course instruction in physical education. For daily life guidance, he used essay writing initially to encourage disabled children and to form harmonious groups. However, he gradually changed the purpose of using essay writing to that of bringing up children to be persons in their own right, even in the face of social change. In addition, the epistemology he based it on changed from a problem-solving to a realistic form.
    He eventually applied the essay writing he had advocated for daily life guidance to course instruction in physical education. From this, it became possible to define his “seikatsu-taiiku”.
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  • Michiko Kakemizu, Rie Yamada
    Type: Original investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 451-465
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: October 22, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to clarify the situation of teachers who taught gymnastics at girls' high schools in the late Meiji Era, and to examine the extent to which the goal of “having to the best of their ability girls' gymnastics taught by female teachers” was actually achieved. Material for this study was acquired from the List of Schools Personnel (published in 1904) and the List of Secondary Schools Personnel (published in 1906 and 1908).
    It was found that more female than male teachers taught gymnastics at this time. Female teachers who taught gymnastics were posted to around 80% of girls' high schools. The placement of male teachers who taught gymnastics at girls' high schools decreased from 68.7% in 1903 to 45.8% in 1908. In each year, approximately 70% of teachers who taught gymnastics were female.
    76.8% (excluding those for whom no alma mater information: 96.2%) of female teachers who taught gymnastics were graduates of the Women's Higher Normal School. These teachers had gymnastics teacher's certificates in conjunction with certificates in other subjects such as Japanese, science and home economics. By 1908 this number had gradually decreased to 33.7% (excluding those for whom no alma mater information: 49.6%). On the other hand, graduates of gymnastics schools who taught exclusively gymnastics increased, and accounted for approximately 34.3% (excluding those for whom no alma mater information: 50.5%) in 1908. Graduates from the privately owned Tokyo Women's Gymnastics and Music School increased rapidly in 1908, and came to occupy approximately 25% of the total (excluding those for whom no alma mater information: 36.7%). On the other hand, graduates from the only other privately owned school were less successful in producing graduates.
    1906 saw the start of a shift from teachers who taught a range of subjects to teachers who taught exclusively gymnastics. In 1908 approximately 20% of girls' high schools nationwide had not achieved the Girls' High School syllabus target of “having to the best of their ability girls' gymnastics taught by female teachers”. As most private gymnastics school graduates were unqualified, they became “assistant teachers” or “part-time teachers” with lower salaries.
    Private schools attempted to make up for the neglect of female gymnastics teacher training in Japan. As a result, many female gymnastics teachers were only able to gain employment on an assistant or part-time basis.
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Practical investigation
  • Akio Kubota, Munehiro Matsushita, Mayumi Sato
    Type: Practical investigation
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 467-479
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: October 06, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As a trial project for improving the motor function of normal elderly individuals, we prepared both home-type and class-type exercise programs that were easily achievable. The home-type program relied on each participant's independence, and the class-type program offered an opportunity to join classes. We compared the exercise practice rate, physical strength and psychological aspect of 48 individuals (home group n=24; class group n=24) who agreed to participate in the study. The subjects were instructed to exercise every day using the study material for 11 weeks. The exercise was the same in both groups, and included muscle strength, stretching, and balance training. Five classes were held during the 11-week study period, and the main evaluation was the exercise practice rate during this period. We also compared the changes in motor function (grip strength, one-legged standing time with eyes open, timed up and go, 5-m walking time, 5-m maximum walking time, sitting forward flexion, and 10-second chair stand time) and psychological aspect (health-related quality of life, assessed using the SF-36). Among the 48 subjects, 20 from the home group and 19 from the class group were analyzed. The exercise practice rate during the 11-week period was 61.5% for the home group and 59.3% for the class group, the difference being non-significant. Analysis of variance showed that grip strength and body pain (one item of the SF-36) were group x time interaction, and that the condition of subjects in the home group improved to a greater degree (P<0.05). Significant time-related effects were observed for 5-m walking time, one-legged standing time with eyes open, 10-second chair stand time, timed up and go, and social function (one item of the SF-36) (P<0.05). The results of this study showed that both the home-type and class-type programs resulted in about a 4-day exercise week. In addition, there was no significant difference in the effects of the two programs. It is suggested that both programs could be potentially effective for preventive health care.
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Materials
  • Masato Sugaya, Mikako Sakamaki, Hayao Ozaki, Riki Ogasawara, Yoshiaki ...
    Type: Materials
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 481-489
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: June 10, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has been reported that low-intensity exercise training with restriction of muscular blood flow (LI-BFR) results in a significant increase of muscle size and strength, although the mechanisms of BFR-induced muscle adaptation are still poorly understood. Changes in muscle activation level during a BFR exercise session may be an important factor for improvement of muscle size and function. However, the relationship between the actual level of induced blood flow restriction and muscle stimulated during the exercise has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activation level evaluated by electromyography (EMG) and muscular blood flow or muscle fatigue during low-intensity resistance exercise with and without BFR. Ten young men participated in three experimental trials: exercise without BFR (CON), exercise with moderate external compression (1.4×systolic arterial pressure, BFR-L), and exercise with high external compression (1.8×systolic arterial pressure, BFR-H). Each subject performed low-intensity (20% of one repetition maximum, 1RM) knee extension exercise (30 reps followed by 3 sets of 15 reps, with a 30-s rest between sets). Maximum voluntary isometric strength (MVC) and thigh muscle blood flow were measured before and immediately after each exercise session. Surface EMG was recorded from the quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis and vastus medialis) during the exercise session, and the integrated EMG (iEMG) was calculated. iEMG increased gradually during each exercise session in all three trials, and the relative increase in iEMG tended to be greater in BFR-H (P=0.07). Decreases in MVC were associated with the magnitude of external compression (CON: −3%, BFR-L: −13%, BFR-H: −25%), and significant differences were found between CON and BFR-L or BFR-H and between BFR-L and BFR-H. Significant positive correlations were observed between changes in MVC and iEMG (r=0.49, P<0.01) and between changes in MVC and muscle blood flow (r=0.56; P<0.01). Our results indicate that BFR-induced increases in muscle activation are correlated with decreased muscle blood flow resulting from external compression and the level of muscle fatigue.
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  • Ryosuke Uchida, Hironobu Tsuchiya, Takayuki Sugo
    Type: Materials
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 491-506
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: September 26, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to obtain a perspective on the future directions of studies focusing on collective efficacy in Japan, including pertinent analytical methods, from three different viewpoints. First, preceding studies of sports groups in Europe and the USA were extensively reviewed, focusing on collective efficacy. This revealed that such studies had centered on group cohesion. It was also found that studies focusing on collective efficacy had tended to increase in recent years. Second, empirical studies of sports groups with respect to collective efficacy were reviewed, focusing particularly on its relationship with performance. Consequently, it was noted that, in general, collective efficacy was positively correlated with performance. Third, multilevel analysis of collective efficacy was examined to estimate its future applicability to sports psychology in Japan. Finally, we identified the areas on which future collective efficacy studies of sports groups in Japan should be based, as few studies in this area have been conducted.
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  • Yusuke Murakami
    Type: Materials
    2011 Volume 56 Issue 2 Pages 507-522
    Published: 2011
    Released: December 28, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: September 26, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Previous studies have suggested that children with developmental disorders often display clumsiness when attempting tasks that require higher body coordination ability. Long rope skipping is one such activity, but while it is usually difficult for such children, it is also effective for helping develop body coordination ability and fostering cooperative attitudes. Thus, it is important to make the most of the benefits of long rope skipping for children with developmental disorders. However, appropriate teaching methods in this context have not been well established, nor have the developmental levels of jumping movement in long rope skipping been adequately addressed. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental levels of jumping movement in long rope skipping for children with developmental disorders.
    The subjects were five children with developmental disorders who participated once a week in private physical activity sessions. The sessions were conducted by members of a laboratory for adapted physical activity. Specifically, body coordination ability in long rope skipping was evaluated in terms of the number of double bounce movements (jumping twice during one rotation of the rope), the interval of movement, the ground and foot interval, the trunk inclination motion angle, the hip joint flexion motion angle, the knee flexion motion angle, and the number of times that the children jumped with both legs.
    The results indicated that there were several different movement forms in the five studied children. These forms were classified into five levels: step movement (the first level of long rope skipping movement), side jumping movement (second level), double bounce movement via large jumping movements (third level), double bounce movement via a small movement space (fourth level), and double bounce movement via small jumping movements (fifth level). These findings can be used to devise an effective approach for teaching long rope skipping to children with developmental disorders.
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