Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 58 , Issue 2
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
Original investigations
  • Mitsuru Shiga
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 429-443
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: July 08, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running performance and both vertical and horizontal jump performance, and also the relationship between leg action in the horizontal jump and running velocity, and jump distance. The subjects were 17 female athletes (Mean±SD; Age 18.6±0.7 years; Height 160.7±3.8 cm; Weight 55.8±5.1 kg) who performed 60-m sprint from a block start, various vertical and horizontal jumping tasks, such as 5-stepping and 5-hopping in a horizontal direction, and Squat jump (SQJ) and Drop jump (DJ), and 10-Rebound jump (RJ10) in a vertical direction. The main results were as follows: (1) Various jump tasks, such as performance in the 5-stepping, 5-hopping, SQJ, DJ, and RJmax, in descending order, were shown to have a high correlation with the average 60-m running velocity. (2) Ability in the horizontal single leg jump showed a high correlation with running velocity in each phase over 10-60-m. (3) Significant correlations were found between jump distance in the 5-stepping, and 5-hopping and step frequency, and step length during the 30-40-m. (4) The 5-stepping and 5-hopping were important for the swing motion of the free leg during the contact phase to improve running velocity and jump distance. (5) The 5-hopping was important for leg flexion of the hip joint during the first flight phase, and for leg extension of the hip joint during the final flight phase, thus improving running velocity.
      These results indicated that various jump tasks in femele athletes were an effective training method to improve running velocity in 60-m. Especially, a horizontal jump with a single leg showed a higher correlation than a vertical jump with both legs. Additionally, it was clearly shown that 5-stepping and 5-hopping were important for swinging the free leg forward in the contact phase, especially the 5-hopping was important for swinging the right and left legs in the flight phase to improve running performance in female athletes.
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  • Shun Ueta, Kazunori Matsumura
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 445-461
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: July 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      This study explores why immigrants creation of an individual “ethnic enclaves” and practice sport separately.
      In previous studies, 3 sociological arguments relating to this issue have been cited: 1) sport as a cause of “failure to assimilate”, which threatens the livelihood of immigrants, 2) sport as an effective means of sustaining “ethnicity”, and 3) sport as an outcome of “disentitlement of the right to enjoy sport”, as a result of the difficulties faced by immigrants in everyday life. However, these arguments have focused on setting the units of “participating in sport” and “encountering daily difficulties” for the “individual”. Therefore, these arguments do not capture the reality of daily life for immigrants, which involves prolonging their period of residence and establishing their families, and the fact that efforts to resolve problems cannot be made by “individuals” but by families, peer groups and communities. This present study tried to grasp this issue of solving the daily living problems of immigrants through sport by focusing on a group of families and communities that participate in sport.
      A case study was conducted at the “Brazil Futsal Center” (BFC) located in Oizumi, Gunma, Japan. The findings revealed that for Japanese-Brazilians who used the BFC, one of the most important issues was “child-minding”. In addition, separation of their children from their home culture in view of the lack of any “Brazilian school” was another issue; one factor related to this was low family income. However, the Japanese-Brazilians dealt with these issues creatively by using the sport space of the BFC. For Japanese-Brazilian families, the BFC is an important focal point where many generations who have embodied their home culture gather.
      From this case study carried out at the BFC, it is clear that the creation of an “ethnic enclave” was not the result of “disentitlement of the right to enjoy sport”, but rather an attempt to restructure the daily life of immigrants through sport.
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  • Toshiyuki Ohya, Yu Aramaki, Kaoru Kitagawa
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 463-471
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: July 08, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Purpose: Recovery condition is classified into two major categories during short-duration (<6 s) intermittent sprint exercise: active recovery (AR) and passive recovery (PR). Performance in passive trials is superior to active trials during short-duration intermittent sprint exercise. The effect of AR intensity on performance during short-duration intermittent sprint exercise remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of recovery conditions (active vs. passive) and exercise intensity of the recovery period on performance, as well as muscle oxygenation during short-duration intermittent exercise.
    Methods: Ten subjects performed a graded test and ten 5 s maximal sprints with 25 s of PR or AR between sprints on a cycle ergometer. Exercise intensity of AR was adjusted to 15% (AR15), 25% (AR25), or 40% (AR40) of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and these were randomly assigned. Peak power and percentage decrement in power were determined during the intermittent sprint exercise. Oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin were also measured using near-infrared spectroscopy.
    Results: Peak power values were significantly higher with PR than with AR40 (P<0.05). The percentage of peak power decrement was significantly lower with PR than with AR40 (8.4±2.9% vs. 10.9±3.6%, P<0.05). O2Hb variation was significantly higher with PR than with AR40 (27.9±9.6% vs. 20.6±6.0%, P<0.05).
    Conclusion: AR40 is associated with reduced sprint performance and lower muscular reoxygenation. Performance with AR is not inferior compared with PR if AR is less than 25% of VO2max during short-duration intermittent exercise.
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  • Mitsuharu Omine, Hidenori Tomozoe, Kazuyuki Nagashima
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 473-482
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: July 08, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      In baseball games, there are instances where a pitcher deliberately targets a batsman of the opposing team with a pitch in order to retaliate against a previous strike on their own player by the opposing team. The present study focusing on major league baseball aimed to clarify the nature of the responsibility sensed a pitcher who finds himself in a similar position after a batsman on his team has taken an intentional hit from the opposing team's pitcher in order to analyze the structure of the pitcher's dilemma. We looked at the situation not only from the viewpoint in which the pitcher's responsibility is considered an obligation, as proposed by Takikawa, but also from the obligations concept proposed by Sandel.
      We found that there is a responsibility to comply with the official baseball rules to discourage any retaliatory hit on a batsman in order to avoid any intentional injury to a member of the opponent's team. On the other hand, responsibility for an intentional hit on a batman can be considered an obligation in order to implement an unwritten rule that condones such retaliatory action. Therefore the structure of the responsibility is considered to be an obligation that generates a dilemma for the pitcher and promotes conflict. On this basis, the difficulty of resolving the problem related to a retaliatory hit was highlighted. Furthermore, the possibility of analysis in accordance with the responsibility concept for ethical issues in sport was suggested.
      We discuss the concept of responsibility as an obligation that presents a conflict, and consider which course of action should have priority in such cases.
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  • Ryoko Takemura, Kohei Shimamoto, Takaaki Kato, Mitsuo Sasaki
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 483-503
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: July 25, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      This study was performed to develop a scale for evaluation of student athletes in sports groups and to examine its reliability and validity, focusing on verification of the sports self-management skills of individual athletes.
      First, 61 items were developed using existing scales. These items were then administered to 126 student athletes (5 teams, 66% male) using a 5-point rating scale and an open-ended questionnaire. To ensure objectivity, a university teacher from a department other than sport, 5 university teachers specializing in sport, and 3 graduate students from the same field also examined the items collected and developed. The items were examined for whether they expressed “self-management skills.”
      In the main research, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data from 603 student athletes (35 teams, 51% male) from various athletic clubs in Kanto, Japan. This revealed that 32 items were divisible into 8 factors: team contribution, thinking ability, self-introspection, conscientious attitude, continuous effort, achievement effort, task improvement, and creativity and originality.
      By analyzing these factors, sufficient reliabilities were confirmed: the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .66-.83 on the scale. The construct validity was supported because significant correlations with the existing scales were evident.
      Comparison of the score between the team's affiliation level and the 8 factors of sport self-management skills revealed that for 7 of the factors, with the exception of “conscientious attitude”, the score for self-management skills of a high-level sports team became higher than the others. Thus, with regard to verification of validity, it was revealed that a team composed of individuals with high sport self-management skills also played a high-level game.
      Thus, the final sport self-management skill scale comprised 4 items for each of the 8 factors, adding up to 32 items.
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  • Takuya Sakamoto
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 505-521
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: August 13, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this paper is to clarify the formation process of body culture, i.e., gestures and behavior, of physical education teachers in Japan based on phenomenological body theory, and to present a theoretical basis for the most desirable “PE teacher identity”. It has been pointed out that PE teacher body culture has a variety of influences on students. However, how a teacher acquires body culture has never been sufficiently considered. Therefore the paper focuses on the phenomenological body theory that suggests the relationship between habits and the perceptual experience of body culture formation.
      The main points of discussion are as follows:
      Previous studies have shown that the image of the PE teacher as a coach has been well established, and that clarification of the process of body culture formation is warranted. In previous studies, the body culture of PE teachers has been discussed mainly in terms of ‘habitus’. However, it has not been clarified how individual PE teachers embody such a culture. Phenomenological body theory indicates that acquisition of habit involves reworking and renewal of the body schema through perception influenced by culture. Based on this, analysis of corporal punishment as a typical example of body culture in school athletic clubs can be used to clarify the model formation of PE teacher's body culture. PE teachers' thoughts and behavior are unconsciously formed as a “body schema” through experience of school athletic clubs where a coach's one-sided method of instruction is almost unconditionally accepted by students striving to acquire athletic success.
      In conclusion, “PE teacher identity” is formed on the basis of original body culture, and is embodied as a habit through unconscious processes. This is why PE teachers seldom notice their behavior, and thus do not change or improve it. It is only through a “body schema” and perceptual experience that a PE teacher's thoughts and behavior, “PE teacher identity”, can be reconstructed. The possibility of PE teacher body theory can be established on the basis of this viewpoint.
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  • Hikari Naito, Yasushi Kariyama, Kenji Miyashiro, Kohei Yamamoto, Mitsu ...
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 523-538
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: August 27, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to clarify the step characteristics during the acceleration phase (0—30 m) of a 100-m sprint with reference to the step-type of sprinters. 59 male collegiate sprinters (season best time: 10.68±0.22 s) were recorded running in 100-m races using 10 high-speed video cameras (300 fps). The step variables, such as step-frequency (SF), step-length (SL), contact time, and flight time of each step in the acceleration phase (0—30 m) and maximum speed phase (30—60 m) were calculated. Cluster analysis was used to classify the subjects according to step-type as indicators for the ratio of SF and SL in the 30—60 m section. In addition, each of the step-type groups was divided into two sub-groups (good and poor sprinters) according to the mean speed in the 30—60 m section. The main results were as follows: (1) Sprinters were classifiable into 3 step-type groups; SL-type (n=22), SF-type (n=24), and Mid-type (n=13). (2) Among these groups, there were no differences in the 100-m race times and mean speeds during the 0—30, 30—60, and 60—100 m sections, although SL-type sprinters were taller and had a higher SLindex than SF-type sprinters. SF-type sprinters took a larger numbers of steps over the 100-m distance and showed a higher SFindex than SL-type and Mid-type sprinters. (3) In the 0—30 m and 30—60 m sections, the contact and flight times of SL-type sprinters were longer than those of SF-type sprinters. (4) In SL-type sprinters, the SF of good sprinters was higher than that of poor sprinters at the 5th step, and the SL of good sprinters was longer than that of poor sprinters from the 7th to 15th steps, and in the 30—60 m section. (5) SF-type sprinters showed no significant differences in the SL, but the SF of good sprinters was higher than that of poor sprinters from the 7th to 16th steps and in the 30—60 m section. These results indicate that there are differences in step characteristics during the acceleration phase according to step-type, and that the step characteristics during the acceleration phase may affect the acceleration ability needed to develop a maximum sprint speed. These findings could be useful for devising training methods for improvement of 100-m sprint performance according to step-type.
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  • Yusuke Ikeda, Wataru Takashima, Toshiyuki Homma, Hideyuki Takahashi, M ...
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 539-555
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: October 17, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the trunk and thigh muscles and power during maximum pedaling, and to investigate gender differences in trunk and thigh muscle sizes in cyclists. The subjects were 12 male and 9 female cyclists. Male cyclists completed 10 seconds of maximum pedaling using 3 different loads of 3, 7, and 11 kp, and female cyclists underwent the same test using loads of 2, 6, and 10 kp. The CSA of the trunk and thigh muscles was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. The relative values of the CSA were divided by the lean body mass (LBM)0.67, and the area of each muscle was calculated as a percentage of the total muscle cross-sectional area in the trunk and thigh. These relative values for the vastus medialis, sartorius, and psoas major were significantly greater in male than in female cyclists. The value of the maximal pedaling power (Pmax) relative to body mass (BM) ranged from 17.3 to 22.5 W/kg in male cyclists, and from 14.4 to 17.1 W/kg in female cyclists. The value of the mean power during 10 seconds of maximal pedaling (Pmean) divided by the LBM was significantly greater in male cyclists than in female cyclists at all loads. Pmean was shown to be closely correlated with the CSA of the trunk and thigh in male cyclists, whereas the relationship between Pmean and CSA in female cyclists was different from that in male cyclists. For male cyclists, significant positive correlations were observed between Pmean and the CSA of the thigh muscles, the psoas major, and the erector spinae at loads of 3 and 7 kp. In addition, the optimal pedaling rate at which Pmax was attained was significantly correlated with the CSA of the psoas major. These results indicate that hip flexion strength is an important factor for improving the sprint performance of highly trained male cyclists, while the extension strength of the knee and hip joints is clearly important for exerting a high Pmax.
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  • Takeshi Matsubara, George Koike, Hiroaki Tanaka, Munehiro Shindo
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 557-566
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: October 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to clarify the cross-sectional relationship between 50%VO2max/wt (ml/kg/min) predicted by the one-point method (1PM50%VO2max/wt) and coronary risk factors (CRFs) in Japanese women, according to body mass index (BMI).
      The study subjects were 1908 women aged 30—59 years with a BMI of 18.5—34.9 kg/m2; none had been taking medicines for hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. Work rate (WR) corresponding to the age-estimated heart rate at 50%VO2max (HR@50%VO2max=38−age/2; bpm) was calculated from the formula WR corresponding to HR at 50%VO2max=WR at exercise/(HR during exercise/HR at 50%VO2max). 1PM50%VO2max/wt was calculated by substituting WR for the metabolic formula given in the guidelines for exercise testing and prescription published by the American College of Sports Medicine. The subjects were categorized on the basis of BMI as obese (Ob, BMI 25.0—34.9 kgm2) or normal weight (NW, BMI 18.5—24.9 kgm2). Each weight group was then categorized on the basis of 1PM50%VO2max/wt as low fitness (LF, 1PM50%VO2max/wt<4 METs) or high fitness (HF, 1PM50%VO2max/wt>=4 METs). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood sugar and HbA1c were measured as CRFs. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to calculate the odds ratios for each group.
      Our findings confirmed that the odds ratio (OR) for having abnormal CRF values was significantly lower in the NW+HF, NW+LF and Ob+HF groups than in the Ob+LF group. Furthermore, the OR was lower at a higher fitness level, regardless of the adjusted BMI. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that a higher submaximal aerobic capacity has a beneficial effect on CRFs independent of obesity.
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  • Toyohiko Ito, Hirohisa Isogai, Tamotsu Nishida, Banjou Sasaki, Yoshio ...
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 567-583
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: October 10, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among perceived motivational climate, learning motives, and strategy use in school physical education classes. A set of inventories was administered to 246 fifth and sixth grade pupils attending elementary schools. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis indicated that perceptions of mastery-oriented and cooperative motivational climate were associated with pupils' mastery-oriented learning motives, which were in turn related positively to strategy use. Furthermore, perceptions of performance motivational climate were associated with performance-oriented and work avoidance learning motives, which were positively related to the use of self-handicapping strategies. These results suggest that students' perception of mastery-oriented and cooperative motivational climate are more related to adaptive motivational patterns of physical education learning than is the case for perceptions of performance motivational climate. The role of perceptions of motivational climate in promoting the learning motives of pupils and strategy use in physical education classes is discussed.
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  • Yasuo Shinohara, Masato Maeda
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 585-597
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: October 11, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The forces applied to the starting blocks are an important aspect of a sprint start. For achieving the most effective start, however, the relationship between these forces and block clearance has not been clarified. In this study, an experiment was conducted with collegiate sprinters in order to elucidate this relationship. The 19 male participants performed a start dash from the blocks as in a typical sprint race, and the forces applied to the front and rear starting blocks, as well as to the ground during the first step, were measured with force plates. The following results were obtained. Based on the impulses applied to the starting blocks, the horizontal impulse component had a greater effect than the vertical impulse component at block clearance. Furthermore, at block clearance, the horizontal component of the impulse applied to the front block accounted for a large proportion of the total horizontal impulse applied to the starting blocks. However, there was a significant correlation between the horizontal component of the impulse applied to the rear block and the total horizontal impulse applied to the starting blocks. The horizontal component of the impulse was affected by the duration of force application to the blocks. Moreover, the horizontal component of the impulse applied to the starting blocks was unrelated to block placement. This indicates that the component was affected by the position of the sprinter relative to the front and rear blocks. Lastly, the horizontal impulse component at block clearance affected the sprint start until grounding of the first step, after which this relationship differed according to the starting strategy and grounding skill of individual participants.
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  • Shota Sakaguchi, Koji Zushi
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 599-615
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: October 11, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      This study investigated the development of rebound jumping ability in preschool children. The subjects included 100 boys (2 years: 8, 3 years: 19, 4 years: 33, 5 years: 30, and 6 years: 10) and 80 girls (2 years: 11, 3 years: 22, 4 years: 21, 5 years: 18, and 6 years: 8). The measurements used were jumping height in counter movement jumping (CMJ), index (jumping height/ground contact time) of consecutive rebound jumping (RJ), foot length, shank length, Achilles tendon length, relative Achilles tendon length (Achilles tendon length/shank length), relative foot length (foot length/shank length) and calf girth as morphological characteristics. The main results obtained were as a follows.
      1)  CMJ jumping height and RJ-index increased with age. Development of RJ-index depended on the increase in jumping height because ground contact time did not change even though jumping height increased with age.
      2)  CMJ and RJ ability development types were classified into 3 groups according to ±1 SD of the residual of regression line with age in months (good, equal, and poor groups). For RJ ability, the number of equal groups decreased significantly after 50 months in boy and girls. In addition, for boys, the number of individuals in the good group increased significantly after 50 months, whereas for girls, the number of individuals in the poor group increased significantly after 50 months. No such changes were found in CMJ ability.
      3)  RJ jumping height and ground contact time were compared among the 3 groups. The good group showed a significantly higher jumping height and shorter ground contact time than the other 2 groups. In addition, morphological characteristics showed no significant differences among the 3 groups.
      These results suggest that the development of RJ ability differs from that of CMJ ability, and that the development difference in RJ ability begins to become evident in infants over 50 months. In addition, it is suggested that this difference is influenced by factors other than morphological characteristics.
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  • Yosuke Hayashi
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 617-635
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 29, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      In the present study, an attempt was made to clarify a process of improving bodily movements in the context of physical education, centering on René Descartes' (1596-1650) theory of the passions of the soul. In the study of physical education philosophy, some attempts have been made to reconsider the mind-body relationship proposed by Descartes. To date, however, there has been little discussion about the passion of the soul theory from the viewpoint of an individual's bodily movements. Accordingly, it seems informative to examine a process of changing bodily movements from the philosophical perspective of Descartes.
      The passion of desire and wonder, according to Descartes, has a profound influence on bodily movements, because, according to him, if the soul desires anything, the whole body becomes more agile and ready to move than without such desire. Curbing our desire for wonder disposes us to acquire scientific knowledge, thus leading us to achieve a specific aim. So we humans strive to control passion, desire and wonder through reason. Descartes also indicated the effect of habit, which leads us to change our bodily movements. Habits are applied not only in animals, but also humans. Therefore, these should be utilized for changing or improving our bodily movements. In addition, forethought can make our bodily movements more appropriate, because if we take care to be aware of our desire, which is dependent only on us, and seek to gain a goal as a result for it, we can enjoy the passion of joy, which brings pleasant emotion recognized by the soul. Bodily movements can thus change in a series of processes.
      More enlightened discussion can ensue by elaborating on Descartes' mind-body theory and the passions of the soul.
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  • Nobuki Ishii
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 637-662
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      One of the important elements for stable promotion of sports activities is risk management for accidents, which are inherent to all sports activities. In this connection, there is a current trend for civil liability for accidents sustained during sport activities being undertaken by not only sports organizations, but also public institutions such as governments.
      In this study, we analyzed French precedents of disputed civil liability by sports organizations following accidents during sports activities, which have highlighted sports legislation in France. Our findings indicated that sports organizations in France which are responsible for organizing, directing and controlling the activities of their members, should be liable to civil action in cases when accidents have been caused by one or more members through committing a fault by a breach of the games' rules, even if the individuals concerned are unidentified. Our study has also shown that the code of sport, which is the fundamental sports laws in France, has articles that obligate sports organizations to pay for civil liability insurance policies. Furthermore, we observed a similarity between recent trends in France and Japan, where more attention is being drawn to devising more concrete preventive measures against sport accidents.
      These findings suggest that in the context of sports organizations managing the risks of sport accidents, it is necessary to utilize insurance systems to the maximum in order to collateralize obligation to pay reparations. Sports organizations need to prevent accidents, which arise through rule violations, by enforcing strict adherence to games' rules by participants. Moreover, considering that sports activities perform a public function, building a social relief system that would protect the victims of sports accidents will be an important element for promotion of sport in the future.
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  • Hiroshi Yamada, Takahiko Nishijima
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 663-675
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: October 26, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of physical ability tests corresponding to the hierarchical training phases of a power development program for soccer players using structural equation modeling (SEM). 103 male college soccer players who were practicing the power development program as a specialty were included. Using qualitative characteristic attribution analysis, 11 performance tests were reselected. Basic statistics were calculated to confirm the normality of the variables. SEM was applied to verify a confirmatory factor structure model to examine the factorial validity, and a simplex structure model was used to examine the validity of the tests in terms of physical ability. The physical ability tests corresponding to the training phases of the power development program were shown to have factorial validity. The 4 sub-domains of physical ability were, in order, functional strength, counter-movement power, rebound power, and sprint speed. The tests had factorial validity and the factors showed hierarchy.
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  • Haruki Uchiyama
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 677-697
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: November 29, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The present study was conducted to clarify the roles of coaches in sports instruction and the essentials of these roles. Up to now, there has been no unified definition of coaching, and the conditions and grounds for selecting coaches and analyzing them collectively have remained unclear. In addition, logically, “induction” rather should be “extracted,” and the existing intelligence of the contents (intension) of the concept can be logically assumed. Accordingly, this approach seems inappropriate for revealing the essence of coaching. In order to overcome this problem, this research classifies into occasions of entities and consistence of existence. Under the subject of existence, entities theoretically transcend this through individualization, and this method is used to reach the existence of entities. As a result of this consideration, coaches first “tame” athletes to a system of physical techniques in order to address specific items, and then they endeavor to maintain the same level of play. It was clarified that coaches are specialists who are able to help athletes “transcend” from their current conditions. Moreover, coaches can using external force to compel a “physical change” in athletes, as leaders who can control athletes intelligently and actively, using a process that consists of and production based on theoretical knowledge. Thus, coaching involves the use of “compelling power” to rise from restrictions under specific conditions, and to encourage constant excellence.
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Practical investigation
  • Kosuke Hiruma, Kenichi Mori, Mitsugi Ogata
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 699-706
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: September 03, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to consider the selection method employed for baton passing during sprint relays in high school physical education classes. Down sweep passing and up sweep passing were compared in terms of learning effect. The results obtained after dividing the students into 3 groups according to sprint capability, and examining the learning effect, were as follows.
    1.  The group with a high sprint capability tended to use up-sweep passing because this allowed the baton to be passed while maintaining sprint speed.
    2.  The groups with low and medium sprint capability low tended to use down-sweep passing over a free distance, because these groups found it difficult to maintain speed in the takeover zone.
      These observations suggest that physical education classes can be made more productive by choosing a suitable baton pass method according to sprint ability.
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Case study
  • Takako Hiwa, Kiyonao Hasegawa
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 707-720
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: October 19, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Objective: In the present study, we devised an exercise program (GUT exercise) based on the motor structure of motion for avoidance of falls. The exercise uses an unbalanced board specially designed for the elderly. The feet are made intentionally unstable by tilting, pitching and rolling the board. From an unbalanced posture, a person steps forward or backward. Such movement is undertaken at a steady tempo (70 beats/min) in time to music. Our aim was to acquire basic knowledge of fall evasion movements in elderly women by devising an exercise program with our balance board, and we determined the ability of the subjects to balance by measuring their degree of unease about falling before and after implementation of the program, and compared the differences.
    Methods: The subjects were 18 elderly women (average age 72.6±4.0 years) who performed exercise training for 5 months (15 sessions). Measurements were done before and after the exercise for a single-foot standing test with the eyes open, Function Reach (FR), Tandem Walk, and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, as well as investigating the extent of unease about falling.
    Results:
    1)  Balance ability improved significantly after the GUT exercise in the single-foot standing test with the eyes open, FR, and Tandem Walk (p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively).
    2)  Considering the degrees of difference before and after implementation of the GUT exercise, we observed significantly favorable correlations for the single-foot standing test with the eyes open, FR, and TUG (p<0.01, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). The measurements revealed a clear tendency for subjects with lower scores before implementation of the GUT exercise to show higher degrees of improvement afterwards.
    3)  The average degree of unease about falling was 10.3±0.6 before the GUT exercise and 10.4±0.9 after the exercise, thus demonstrating that unease about falling remained relatively unchanged.
    Discussion: In conventional coaching aimed at making the elderly better at avoiding falls, unstable postures should be avoided from a safety viewpoint. In the exercise we have devised, however, the body's center of gravity is made to shake in an unstable situation. Applying this exercise to elderly women seems to have improved their balancing ability without worsening their unease about falling.
    Conclusion: The significance of reexamining exercise intervention for elderly women has been verified from the viewpoint of acquiring the ability to cope with an unstable situation, while ensuring a sufficient level of safety.
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Materials
  • Shohko Yamanaka, Hiroshi Sekiya
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 2 Pages 721-730
    Published: 2013
    Released: December 07, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: October 11, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge of eating disorders among female college athletes. A questionnaire was distributed to female college athletes who specialized in sports with an increased risk for the development of eating disorders (N=100), those specializing in other sports (N=68), and those not belonging to varsity teams (N=79). The questionnaire consisted of the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and knowledge tests on risk factors, symptoms, and treatments/coping strategies. Although total scores for correct knowledge did not differ among the groups, the score for incorrect knowledge of treatments/coping strategies was higher in both of the athlete groups than in the non-athlete group. In addition, athletes with EAT-26 scores of 20 or more had more correct knowledge of risk factors but also had more incorrect knowledge for all subscales than athletes with EAT-26 scores of 10 or less, indicating that athletes with abnormal eating attitudes had a greater amount of incorrect knowledge.
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