Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 58 , Issue 1
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
Original investigations
  • Ai Aramaki
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 1-17
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study considers the Olympic legacy in relation to the Games of the XXX Olympiad in 2012. First, it argues the concept of an Olympic legacy and verifying 2012 Candidature procedure and questionnaire. Second, it analyzes the 2012 candidate file and Report of the IOC evaluation commission for the Games of the XXX Olympiad in 2012 to obtain additional information about the plan for leaving a legacy in each candidate city. Third, it provides further insight into the legacy of the Olympic movement.
    Based on analysis of the 2012 candidate files, the legacy created in the host city/region is presented in terms of both tangible and intangible aspects. The intangible legacy serves as a driving force for the tangible legacy. The IOC evaluation commission is appreciative of the importance of such a legacy, which includes city development, the possibility for development of sports, and plans for environmental improvement. However, in order to maintain the uniqueness of the Olympic movement, the IOC should construct a system to take stock of intangible legacies as well.
    In the final analysis, it appears necessary to make best use of the ideas expressed in the fundamental principle of Olympism, which is to construct a legacy for reorganizing sports education.
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  • Shintaro Endo, Hidetoshi Kanou, Kazuo Oishi
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 19-33
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the style of coping with difficulties and the level of Sense of Coherence (SOC) among college athletes. The subjects were 113 college athletes (68 males, 45 females) from metropolitan colleges who were asked how they coped with difficulties in competitive sports, and their levels of SOC were assessed individually. SOC was measured by using the Japanese version of the SOC13 (Yamazaki, 1999). Twenty-one athletes (12 males, 9 females; mean age 20.1±0.3 years) were chosen on the basis of two criteria: 1) a high level of performance in competition, and 2) experience of coping with more difficult situations during their junior and/or senior high school days. They were divided into two groups on the basis of previous studies: one with a high level of SOC (HS) and the other with a low level of SOC (LS). The mean SOC score in the HS group was significantly higher than that in the LS group [t(19)=6.03, p<.001]. Differences in coping style between these groups were analyzed qualitatively using the KJ Method. For the HS group, key words for summarizing the coping style were “self-transformation by learning” and “the presence of others”, whereas for the LS group, the key words were “no inspection” and “selfish”. Thus, the coping style in the HS group contrasted to that in the LS group. It was supposed that coping style in the HS group was related to good experiences that had strengthened the SOC.
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  • Yudai Yoshida, Shinji Takahashi, Tomonori Chiba, Akinobu Maeda, Tomohi ...
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 35-44
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 16, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Differences in sports training lead to differences in the style of turn, and these affect the turn technique during the multistage 20-m shuttle run test. The purpose of this study was to determine running characteristics during the multistage 20-m shuttle run test with a triaxial accelerometer. Four male rugby players, four male long-distance runners, and three untrained males undertook two tasks: a shuttle running task (SRT), which has the same protocol as the multistage 20-m shuttle running test, and a treadmill running task (TRT), which has the same ratio of speed increase and duration time as the multistage 20-m shuttle running test. Anterior-posterior, vertical, and medial-lateral acceleration were measured using a triaxial accelerometer worn on the right side of the hip. A linear mixed model (LMM) with three factors (task, group, and velocity) was used to analyze the running characteristics in different sports. Anterior-posterior and medial-lateral outputs in the SRT were significantly higher than those in the TRT (P=.011; P=.003, respectively); by contrast, there was no significant difference in vertical output (P=.534). Because the interactions of task and group in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral outputs were significant, LMMs with two factors (task and velocity) in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral outputs were used in each group to analyze the effect of turn techniques. Anterior-posterior and medial-lateral outputs were increased in the SRT. Anterior-posterior output may reflect changes in the speed of turn and medial-lateral output may reflect cutting movements in the turn. Additionally, whereas both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral acceleration were increased in rugby players, only medial-lateral acceleration was increased in long-distance runners and anterior-posterior acceleration was increased in untrained males. These results indicate that data obtained using a triaxial accelerometer reflect running characteristics during the multistage 20-m shuttle run test.
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  • Kenji Yomoda, Riki Sukou, Tomoko Ogiwara, Yohei Hamagami, Akiyo Miyaza ...
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 45-60
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 18, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that enhance the commitment of elementary school teachers to teaching physical education.
    Using semi-structured interviews, qualitative data were collected from 12 elementary school teachers (10 males and 2 females) who were participating in a university long-term training program. A modified-grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data.
    The results indicated 3 categories, including 7 sub-categories and 14 concepts, that enhanced elementary school teachers' commitment to teaching physical education. The categories and sub-categories were (1) workplace environment and learning opportunities (support from other teachers, role expectation, and opportunities for participation in training programs), (2) teachers' belief in physical education (perception of its educational value and teaching viewpoint), and (3) reflective factors (observation of students and efficacy of teaching). All subjects placed value on support from experienced teachers and students' positive responses. In addition, the relationships among mutual categories and commitment suggested the importance of teachers' reflective practices through confirmation of students' learning.
    It is concluded that supportive school contexts designed to ensure that teachers acquire knowledge of content, teaching skills and ability to reflect on practices are needed in order to enhance the commitment of elementary school teachers to teaching physical education.
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  • Nobuaki Fujibayashi, Yasushi Kariyama, Yoshinori Kinomura, Koji Zushi
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 61-76
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 16, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for measuring the common ability to perform the ballistic stretch-shortening cycle movement in unilateral horizontal jump events and to investigate the relationship between the performances of various jump events. Ten male college track and field athletes performed the rebound long jump test (RLJ test). The participants jumped from a 0.1-m-high step to the ground after an approach run (falling jump), followed by jumping without interruption for as far as possible (propulsive jump). The falling jump distance was set at 1, 2, or 3 m, and touchdown velocity, jumping distance, contact time, ground reaction force and leg joint torque were measured for all three falling jump distances. To evaluate RLJ test performance, the RLJ index was calculated by dividing jumping distance by contact time. Simultaneously, the rebound jump test (RJ test) method for measuring the common ability to perform the ballistic stretch-shortening cycle movement in lateral vertical jump events and the five steps of bounding (5SB) method for measuring the common ability to perform unilateral horizontal jump events were conducted. We found that there were no significant correlations between the jumping height, contact time, and RJ power [RJ power (W/kg)=jumping height (m)/(contact time (sec)/2)] of the RJ test and the jumping distance, contact time, and RLJ index of the RLJ test, or any of the three falling jump distances. Thus, it was concluded that abilities to perform those two tests differed. On the other hand, there was a strong correlation (r=0.859) between the RLJ index measured for a falling jump distance of 3 m (RLJ index3) and the IAAF score of track and field athletes. In addition, the pattern and magnitude for the ground reaction force and leg joint torque measured during the RLJ for a falling jump distance of 3 m had similar characteristics to takeoff in the long jump or triple jump during a competition. Furthermore, 5SB was correlated (r=0.790) with the IAAF score, but the correlation coefficient was less than that of the RLJ index3. The RJ index was not correlated with the IAAF score. These results demonstrate the significance of using the RLJ test and RLJ index from a 0.1-m-high step for measuring the common ability to perform the ballistic stretch-shortening cycle movement in unilateral horizontal jump events.
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  • Hideaki Okubo
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 77-90
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 18, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study was performed to clarify how elementary school teachers in 1880 recognized and understood gymnastics in the context of the first national education system, through analysis of members' opinions expressed in the Fugeshi and Suzu county educational conference proceedings.
    The findings were as follows:
    1.  Teachers at that time understood the aims of gymnastics as maintaining the physical strength and good physical posture of children, and considered that every child had already achieved those aims in their daily life. Consequently, one third of the thirty members agreed to completely eliminate gymnastics from the curriculum. Another one third considered that gymnastics merely involved letting children enjoy amusing play, and therefore that “gymnastics” was inappropriate as a course name. Thus, only one third of the members actually agreed to the original proposal for gymnastics.
    2.  Teachers seemed to consider that gymnastics or exercises must be taught by teachers, unlike the natural play that was spontaneous for most children. Moreover, gymnastics was considered boring because children would just imitate their teachers. As a result, gymnastics was considered appropriate only for higher graders. This meant that most teachers at the time did not have detailed information or knowledge about gymnastics, so that for most of them gymnastics was probably synonymous with “amusement time” for children.
    3.  According to the model teaching plan for Ishikawa prefecture in 1880, gymnastics was prescribed as an extra period of ordinary classes for first graders, regardless of sex. However, from the 3rd grade, girls learned manners of behavior instead of gymnastics. In other words, gymnastics was only for boys.
    4.  The content of gymnastics was criticized for a lack of gradual progress, in contrast to lessons in manners for girls. This implies that gymnastics was also considered a means of teaching boys manners that were appropriate for men.
    Thus, some new important historical facts about gymnastics during the kyoikurei (1879 Education Order) period in Japan were clarified.
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  • Yasushi Kariyama, Hiroaki Fujii, Kenichi Mori, Koji Zushi
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 91-109
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 18, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aimed to clarify the 3-dimensional joint kinetics of the takeoff leg for the single-leg rebound jump (SRJ) and the double-leg rebound jump (DRJ). 14 male track and field athletes (sprinters, jumpers and decathletes) performed the SRJ and the DRJ with maximal effort. Kinematics and kinetics data were recorded using a Vicon T20 system (250 Hz) and force platforms (1000 Hz). The results of all the analyses were as follows:
    1.  In the SRJ, hip joint work around the adduction-abduction and internal-external rotation axes was higher than in the DRJ, because of larger hip abduction and internal rotational torque in the SRJ.
    2.  In the SRJ, hip abduction and internal rotation torque were larger than those in the DRJ. These may have been caused by the anatomical and mechanical differences between the SRJ and DRJ.
    3.  In the SRJ, hip abduction torque affected the increment in jump height. This result suggests that hip abduction torque affects the higher jump height for a single leg to a greater extent in the SRJ than in the DRJ.
    4.  In the SRJ, the trunk lateral flexion caused by trunk flexion torque reduced the lateral displacement of the center of gravity due to pelvic list.
    These results suggest that 1) the SRJ is an effective training tool for improvement of technique and force output ability for prioritization of power output at the hip internal rotators, especially the hip abductors in addition to the hip extensor, and 2) hip abduction torque in the SRJ has a role in both postural control and determining the increment in jump height. These findings will be useful for clarifying the most pertinent points related to the SRJ and for developing an effective method that can be applied to plyometrics.
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  • Ryota Nawata, Yasumitsu Ishii, Akira Maeda
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 111-122
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 18, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of different ball distances on the upper and lower limbs for the overhand pass in volleyball. Eleven male college volleyball players participated. The subjects performed the overhand pass toward objects located at three different ball distances (3, 6, and 9 m) on two force platforms, and motion analysis was performed via a motion capture system comprising 12 high-speed video cameras.
    The following results were obtained: (1) As the ball distance increased, the maximum dorsal flexion angular velocity of the wrist decreased, whereas the length of the pull phase, the vertical peak force on the rear leg, the maximum extension angular velocity of the hip and knee, and the maximum plantar flexion angular velocity of the ankle all increased. Therefore, adjustment of the ball distance for the overhand pass was facilitated by changing the impulse of the ball caused by increasing the intensity of both the rear leg step and the wrist stiffness. (2) In the previous instructional manual, the buffer action for the falling ball during overhand passing was facilitated by flexion of the whole body. However, in this study, the buffer action was facilitated conducted only with the upper limb irrespective of the ball distance. From the viewpoint of the series of movements during overhand passing, the whole body was used in the period from flexion to extension, but the flexion action of the whole body was incorporated into the preparatory phase, and the buffer did not involve the lower limbs after ball contact.
    This difference between the previous instructional manual and the present findings are attributed to the imprecise definition of movement phases in the manual.
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  • Yusuke Okada, Hidenori Tomozoe
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 123-133
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 18, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Toshio Nakamura (1929-2011) was a pioneer of physical education theory after World War II. In 1973, he drew up a curriculum of physical education that has since been referred to as the “Nakamura Plan”, with a scientific basis for development of sports culture. This comprised three areas: skill, history and organization. The “Nakamura Plan” represented the starting point of his overall theory.
    Previous studies have not focused on the formative process of his theory or the characteristics his thoughts once the theory had been formulated. Therefore, the present study explored the characteristics of Nakamura's thoughts at the inception of his theory by analyzing the formative process of the “Nakamura Plan”.
    We concluded that the “Nakamura plan” had been created through the Japan Teachers' Union (JTU), and influenced by Yasuo Tange, who had founded a private educational research group called gakkotaiiku-kenkyu-doshikai. Toshio Nakamura had been a member of the JTU in the 1950s, and had given his consideration to the specific values of education promoted by the JTU. Moreover, he had joined the gokkotaiiku-kenkyu-doshikai.
    Through the formative process of the “Nakamura Plan”, Nakamura acquired a viewpoint that the government's educational policy after World War II was counter to that before the war. He criticized the National Curriculum in 1970 on the basis of this viewpoint, and this formed the theoretical background to the “Nakamura Plan”. This viewpoint, however, was biased. The purpose of educational policy after World War II was to eliminate the gap that existed between the urban and rural educational environments. This required the intervention of the government. Thus, there appeared to be “binary opposition” in that one theory was opposed to the other, under Nakamura's viewpoint, and this “binary opposition” represented the starting point of his overall theory.
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  • Kazuhito Shibayama, Norihisa Fujii, Michiyoshi Ae
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 135-149
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: February 04, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the angular momentum characteristics of each limb during the airborne phase in sprint hurdlers. Twenty-nine world and Japanese top class 110-m hurdlers (height: 1.84±0.05 m, weight: 74.6±6.9 kg, race time: 13.77±0.45 s) participated. Motions at the 7th hurdle during official competitions were videotaped using two high-speed VTR cameras at 200, 250, or 300 Hz. The positions of 25 body landmarks and calibration marks in the projected images were digitized. We then calculated three-dimensional coordinates using a DLT method. The angular momentum of each segment in the global coordinate system was calculated using the method of Dapena (1978). The amount of change in the angular momentum of body groups during each phase, and the duration of each phase, were calculated together with the coefficients of correlation between the calculated values and average running velocity. The results are summarized as follows: (1) In the support phase for the take-off leg, faster hurdlers had a large whole-body angular momentum about the transverse and longitudinal axes. (2) In the first half of the airborne phase, faster hurdlers needed a large angular momentum for the lead-leg about the transverse axis in order to raise the leg, and therefore compensated for it with a large counter-direction of angular momentum for the trail-leg. (3) In the second half of the airborne phase in faster hurdlers, a shorter time was taken to swing the lead-leg, with corresponding adjustment by the head and trunk. However, if hurdlers overemphasized the downward motion of the lead-leg, excessive backward and right or left leaning of the trunk appeared to occur upon landing. Consequently, it is suggested that hurdlers need to change the downward motion of their lead-leg in accordance with their running velocity.
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  • Kyungjin Park, Yoshiko Murata
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 151-180
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: March 01, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the light of the recent revisions to the national curriculum announced at a similar time in Japan and Korea, the present study compared and analyzed the dance-related contents of the “2008 Teaching Guidelines” in Japan and the “2007 Revised Education Course” in Korea, and investigated the background of the modifications reflecting the differences between the two countries through interviews with specialists responsible for the revision.
    In both countries, the dance content of the national curriculum was included in the physical education (PE) course and had been revised with the common aim of emphasizing its role as part of PE. However, whereas the revision of the PE curriculum in Japan had stressed “disambiguation and systematization of instruction contents” and the composition had been retained as “exercise area and event center”, that in Korea had been changed largely to stress “value-based physical activity” due to “changes in the philosophical viewpoint of PE”.
    Hence, in Japan, the dance-related content was included in the area of “Expressive Activity Field and Dance” whereas in Korea the selective activity was in the area of “Expression Activity”. With regard to dance-related content, that in Japan showed a spiral-like development throughout the school grades comprising “Expression and Creative Dance, Folk Dance, and Rhythm Dance” with different characteristics as the main contents, whereas in Korea there was an apparent stepwise development of content from elementary school to middle and high schools with a content comprising “Movement expression, Rhythm expression, Folk expression, and Theme and Creative expression” aimed at continuation of creative expression.
    Also, in Japan initially the area of “Dance” became a required field up to 1st and 2nd grades of middle school, whereas in Korea there was an emphasis on “Expressive Sports” such as rhythm gymnastics, and “Artistic Dance” activities including classic ballet, reflecting the characteristics of the two countries.
    The background of these changes and the differences in content related to dance in the two countries are thought to impact on the PE course overall. That is, due to the structural difference between the countries in both PE and the curriculum, the goals and contents of the PE course also showed differences and influenced the contents relating to dance. Especially, as Japan showed clear differences in the characteristics of dance from other exercise fields, whereas Korea emphasized characteristics of dance that were also common to other physical activities, the place of dance in the PE course was encouraged. Hence, the dance content of PE also needs to reflect the place of dance as part of the PE course. This study of both countries implies that the significance of dance as a component of PE can be stated through its content and goals, and the relationship it has with other areas of exercise.
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  • Hirofumi Shimojo, Yoshio Nakata, Masamitsu Tomikawa, Hideki Takagi, Hi ...
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 181-194
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: March 01, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine trends in the body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness of Japanese university students over a period of 26 years and the association between these parameters. We retrospectively collected data on 17,514 students aged 18-19 years attending a university in the years 1984, 1986, 1990, 1991, 1996, 1997, and 2004-2010. The subjects were classified into three body types on the basis of calculated BMI: underweight (BMI<18.5), normal (18.5≤BMI<25), and overweight (BMI≥25). We also calculated the physical fitness score on the basis of 4 fitness-test results (hand-grip power, handball throwing distance, 50-m running time, and 20-m shuttle run count). The time of assessment was categorized into three periods: 1980s (1984 and 1986), 1990s (1990, 1991, 1996, and 1997), and 2000s (2004-2010). The association of physical fitness with body type and period was analyzed using 2-factorial analysis of variance. Descriptive statistics showed that over the 26-year period, moderately increases in the prevalence of underweight and overweight individuals were observed, and the fitness score decreased for both sexes and all body types. A significant interaction between body type and period on physical fitness was observed in boys (P<0.05); underweight and overweight boys showed a greater decrease in physical fitness than normal-weight boys from the 1990s to the 2000s. These long-term data suggest that over 26 years, an increase in the prevalence of underweight and overweight individuals among university students resulted in a decrease in fitness levels to a greater extent in boys.
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  • Tomoyuki Matsuo, Yuichi Hirano, Takashi Kawamura
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 195-210
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: March 01, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Expert players and/or expert coaches have a large stock of experiential knowledge, including knowledge of movement-related causality. We attempted to extract experiential knowledge of movement-related causality in baseball pitching from expert players and coaches with sufficient creditability. Verbal data collected in a previous study (Matsuo et al. 2010) using semi-structured interviews with four former professional baseball pitchers and seven expert baseball coaches were used for this study. The data had been categorized on the basis of a wide variety of coaching points. A matrix of co-occurrence based on the verbal data was used to calculate the strength of association between pairs of categories. In the process of the calculation, we employed the matrix calculation utilized in the Dematel method to count indirect associations. The distances among categories, calculated on the basis of co-occurrence probability, were used to assess the creditability of the verbal data. The categories were mapped into three-dimensional space using the least squares method, based on the distances. The associations of categories were extracted as highly trustworthy when the root mean squared error between the original distances and the mapped distances was below 10%. Among the extracted associations, the direction of causality was added to the associations that expressed the causality explicitly among the verbal data. The major selected causalities were as follows:
    1)  Moving forward before placing weight on the pivot foot sufficiently opens the trunk earlier and leads to insufficient weight being placed on the stride foot.
    2)  An inadequate take-back action, especially excessive horizontal abduction and elbow extension, limits the flexible arm movement around throwing-side ear and leads to lower shoulder abduction. In addition, it makes the trunk open earlier.
    3)  Excessive lead elbow extension during the stride phase makes the trunk open earlier. How the lead-arm is pulled towards the trunk also affects trunk rotation.
    4)  Bending the neck at any point leads to inadequate trunk rotation.
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  • Takahiro Goto
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 211-224
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: April 12, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The objective of this research was to examine the social significance of a local sports organization based on fieldwork conducted in Nakatsue Village from May 2011 to January 2012. Specifically, we focused on the soccer team “Le Lion Nakatsue” which was formed on the occasion of Nakatsue becoming the host of Cameroon's training camp for the World Cup in 2002. We examined the significance of “Le Lion Nakatsue” in the lives of the young generation of Nakatsue where the village society is rapidly dwindling.
    Historically and geographically, disparity among the districts in Nakatsue Village has been considerably large and thus the area never had a feeling of communal unity. Under such circumstances, “Le Lion Nakatsue” served to unite the young people. Furthermore, analyses of the relationships among members and local organizations revealed the following:
    – A variety of relationships existed between the members concerning daily life such as work, districts and schools.
    – Young villagers were performing roles within various local organizations for the young, such as the Youth Group, “Le Lion Nakatsue” and the “Local Patrol Group”.
    –The local organization activities of the young generation had become multilayered.
    – Young villagers were sharing a deep and stable relationship similar to that seen in traditional Japanese mutual aid associations such as tanomoshiko.
    In Nakatsue Village where the population continues to decrease and job opportunities for young people are scarce, “Le Lion Nakatsue” served to unite the young villagers as an “organization that will exist for a considerable period of time” while also serving a socially significant role in providing opportunities for carrying on relationships shared by the young generation.
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  • Tatsuya Moriyama
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 225-241
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: May 13, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper examines the relationship between ethics and the Japanese martial arts (budo). The issue of this relationship has been studied mainly from the standpoint of history, and has not been much researched from the standpoint of practitioners. Therefore, in this paper, I describe how practitioners acquire the ethics of budo by approach the topic through the concept of “becoming,” as maintained by Sakuta, Yano and Kameyama, with the intention of clarifying the inner processes adopted by practitioners. For this purpose, I observed participants at an aikido dojo. Generally, participant observation means describing the experiences of field work objectively. In this paper, however, I describe the aikido practitioners' inner experiences, and from that I try to clarify the practical aspect of the relationship between ethics and budo.
    The findings of my study were as follows. In the practice of aikido, the practitioners are instructed to harmonize with each other and are taught that this feeling of harmonization is the “Aikido spirit”. Not only by developing this feeling, but also an awareness that the mind and body don't match each other, and control of mind and body cannot be achieved together, aikido practitioners gain a new view of the world, and reflect on everyday life and communication with others through the feeling gained in the dojo. Aikido practitioners acquire ethics through constant reflection on mind and body. Such reflection is indispensable in order for practitioners to embody morality. I think it is possible to consider fundamentally the roles of modern Japanese martial arts by clarifying these processes.
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  • Masaaki Kubo
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 243-256
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: April 12, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study examines the temporality of the experience of sports movements. First, it makes a quantitative comparison of sports based on Nakai's argument, and discusses how qualitative objects of sports movements are transformed into quantitative objects through quantitative comparison. Second, this study considers the objective and quantitative time in sports and argues the relationship between the means and the end. Finally, this study discusses the subjective and qualitative recognition of time in sports and the experience of sports movements as “semantic generation.”
    The results of this examination were as follows:
    1)  Sports are indicated as quantitative concepts such as scores and records. These quantitative aspects of sports are compared quantitatively according to the elements of competition in sports. Sports movements are also measured and analyzed quantitatively based on quantitative comparisons. Even qualitative aspects of sports movements such as kinesthesises of players can be transformed into quantitative data.
    2)  The tendency for quantitative transformation reflects the recognition of time in sports. Both objective and quantitative time are important. Time proceed continuously in a straight line from the present to the future. The present time becomes the means to an end (the future). Similarly, sports movements become a means to an end. The results of sports movements (i.e. the future) such as scores, records and winning, or health and socialization, are more important than practice of sports movements (the present).
    3)  Differences in time recognition exist in sports. The subjective and qualitative recognition of time is called vertical time. For vertical time, the moment of practicing sport (the present) is essential and is not a means to an end (the future). In the moment of sports movements, physical experience as “semantic generation” arises.
    This study concludes that the physical experience as “semantic generation” in the moment of sports movements (the present) is the essence of sports. However, this qualitative experience of sports movements is likely to be a means to an end (the future). Because qualitative aspects of sports movements are transformed into quantitative aspects, they are at all times dependent on the element of competition in sports.
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  • Tetsuya Nakajima
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 257-276
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: May 13, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the establishment process of the Kosen Judo Taikai (National High School and Vocational School Judo Competition; referred to hereafter as KJT), which was hosted by Kyoto Imperial University (KIU) from 1914. Only few attempts have been made to study the establishment of this competition. Yumoto (1977) has stated that the KJT adopted two different sets of rules for refereeing (Kodokan rules and Butokukai rules), but he did not discuss how these rules were adopted. The present study specifically clarifies the development of the refereeing rules at the KJT, in the context of increasing emphasis on competition. The study findings were as follows:
    1)  The original aims of inter-scholastic matches were self-discipline and promoting friendship between schools. Competition was not the main focus.
    2)  The Fourth Higher School (referred to hereafter as Shikoh) considered “goodwill” to be the aim of their match with the Third Higher School (referred to hereafter as Sankoh) in April 1907. However Shikoh, as representatives of the Hokuriku district, actually became more concerned with victory. Shikoh devised tactics to achieve draws in individual matches in order to win the competition.
    3)  This competitive spirit caused disputes between Sankoh and Shikoh after April 1907. In discussions to arrange subsequent matches, each school tried to propose conditions favorable to itself, which led to repeated breakdowns in discussion.
    4)  It also became the custom to hold discussions over the refereeing rules before interscholastic competitions between Sankoh and the Fifth and Sixth Higher Schools. In these discussions, the issues that needed to be resolved were the length of the matches, the means of determining victory and defeat, rules governing submission holds, the order of referees, and the number of members in a team competition.
    5)  The idea for the KJT had already been proposed by KIU in February 1912, but it took 2 years and 10 months to be realized. It took that long for the higher schools to develop fair rules for interscholastic competition.
    6)  The rules developed for the KJT were different from both Kodokan and Butokukai rules.
    In conclusion, the KJT was established through a process in which each participating school, while pursuing rivalry with the other schools, was able to compromise to come up with a set of rules that would be fair to all.
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  • Keita Matsukura, Takeshi Asai
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 277-296
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: May 13, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is believed that the success of the goalkeeper (GK) in saving difficult shots by diving is a key factor in soccer because it can influence the outcome of the game to a large extent. However, the most appropriate way to exert force during the diving motion according to the course of the shot from either leg is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the fundamental mechanism of a GK's diving motion according to the height and distance of the shot. We performed an experiment in which 11 university GKs participated. They were asked to dive toward balls set at 3 different heights located a short or a long distance from the GK. By examining the GKs' diving motions, we calculated the ground reaction force (GRF), joint angular velocity, and joint torque. The results indicated that the magnitude of the GRF under both legs and the direction of the GRF under the ball-side (BS) leg differed with the ball height. We also found that a higher dive by the GKs corresponded to a larger counter-movement of the contralateral-side (CS) leg and a higher stopping power of the BS leg in order to increase the vertical velocity, and more exertion of extension torques at the hip and foot for takeoff compared to those in lower dives. Furthermore, a lower dive of the GKs corresponded to a larger angular impulse of the BS hip adduction after the BS leg touched the ground. These findings suggest that during the takeoff part of the diving motion of a GK, depending on the ball height, the CS leg controls the magnitude of power and the BS leg controls both the magnitude and the direction of power in order for the GK to dive directly towards the ball.
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Practical investigation
  • Ryosuke Tsuda, Akihiro Inoue, Koya Suzuki, Yasuhiko Marutani
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 297-307
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 16, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of playing small-sided games of soccer with a change in pitch area per player. Two types of small-sided games, “small pitch area per player”, and “large pitch area per player”, were played by two first year junior high school PE classes. Twenty students participated in the game with a small pitch area per player (S group), and 20 students participated in the game with a large pitch area per player (L group). Before and after the classes, a skill test (ball lifting), a fitness test (150 m sprint with changing direction: 25 m×6 times, rest interval 30 s), and a test game were conducted. In addition, students' formative evaluation was conducted after each class. The main results were as follows:
    1)  There were no significant inter-group differences in the rate of change in ball lifting.
    2)  The mean time for 6 sprints improved significantly after class in both groups.
    3)  The distance covered and heart rate during the game increased significantly after classes in the L group.
    4)  The score for the students' formative evaluation tended to increase as class progressed in the L group.
    These results suggest that improvement of energy-related physical fitness can be obtained regardless of the pitch area in small-sided soccer games.
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Case study
  • Shinji Takahashi, Satoru Matsubara, Kazuhiko Amano
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 309-320
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: March 01, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We had previously investigated awareness of, and participation in sports among residents in a region of Sendai city before the Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how the disaster had influenced the sports awareness and participation of residents. We interviewed adults in 2006 and 2011, using the same questionnaire that had been designed to measure awareness of sports. We also counted new participants who responded to leaflets advertising a physical activity program in the same region during the period from 2007 to 2011. The results of the questionnaire revealed no significant change as a result of the disaster except for an item inquiring about the preferred frequency of exercise per week. After the earthquake, this frequency decreased significantly (p=0.020). The percentage of new participants relative to total leaflets distributed also decreased significantly from 2.1% to 0.0% (p=0.031). These results imply that public awareness of sports services for maintenance of health had not been influenced by the disaster. However, the disaster might have led to a decrease in the time spent on sports activity and the proportion of individuals newly participating in sports services.
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Materials
  • Akiyo Miyazaki, Yasuto Kobayashi, Michiyoshi Ae
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 321-330
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: December 07, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the overarm throwing motion of skilled elementary schoolgirls, and to obtain suggestions for teaching throwing motion to elementary school pupils. The subjects were the top ten and bottom ten girls who were selected on the basis of their rank in the ball-throwing event at a national athletic meeting for elementary school pupils. The girls were also videotaped by two high-speed cameras for three-dimensional DLT analysis. Three-dimensional coordinate data smoothed by a Butterworth digital lter were used to calculate ball velocity and joint kinematics, and to obtain a standard motion for each group, as reported by Ae et al. (2007).
    The initial velocity of the balls thrown by the top 10 girls was signicantly greater than that of the bottom 10 girls. There were signicant differences between the two groups in the elbow joint angle, internal/external rotation angle and horizontal adduction/abduction angle of the shoulder joint, and lateral lean angle of the torso at the touchdown, knee joint angle of the step leg at the release, and the range of motion of the knee joint angle of the driving leg. The major characteristics of the throwing motion of the top 10 girls were 1) release with the elbow joint extended, 2) a great range of backward twist of the torso and back swing of the right arm, and 3) quick internal rotation of the right shoulder joint before release. In the second phase after touchdown of the step foot, the girls turned the driving knee inward and forced the body forward, while the bottom 10 girls tended to extend the driving knee and move the body slightly upward compared with the top 10 girls.
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  • Hideaki Okubo
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 331-342
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 16, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is said that the history of Association Football in Japan, especially student soccer, began when an Englishman named DeHavilland moved from the Fourth High School in Kanazawa to the Tokyo Higher Normal School in September 1904, where he started coaching soccer. It has been recorded in the history of the Tokyo Higher Normal School soccer club that “some students of the University in Tokyo who said they had been taught football in Kanazawa came to Otsuka with their teacher, and we played a practice match together in December, 1904”.
    This article suggests that DeHavilland had also taught soccer in Kanazawa. However, in the history of the Fourth High School soccer club, it is stated that “soccer began in Kanazawa in 1924”, and does not mention DeHavilland. On the basis of this evidence, the history of soccer in Japan states that “this may have not been the case, because of the short stay of DeHavilland and lack of any proof that soccer was played in Kanazawa”.
    Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to obtain documentary evidence of DeHavilland and to clarify whether he did, in fact, play soccer in Kanazawa during 1898-1904, based on new documents from the Fourth High School and articles in the school union magazine at that time.
    The findings obtained were as follows:
    1.  DeHavilland urged students to play football after he started working at the Fourth High School in 1898. His words at the kick-off, which marked the start of student soccer in Japan, were: “It is no matter, hailing, snowing, raining. Come and play!”
    2.  It is stated in Hokushinkai magazine that DeHavilland was involved in establishing a football club in 1898. Mention of the football club appeared in the Fourth High School Union rulebook in 1899, and the name DeHavilland appeared in the list of board members of the football club in 1901.
    3.  On April 18th, 1901, football was played for 30 minutes at the Fourth High School as one of the sports at the sports festival.
    4.  On October 5th, 1902, at the ceremony to mark the opening of the “football club” at Ishikawa prefectural Second Junior High School, DeHavilland and Wohlfarth both played goalkeeper.
    This evidence of the involvement of DeHavilland and Wohlfarth in soccer at the Fourth High School and in Kanazawa should be regarded as one of the hidden roots of student soccer in Japan.
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  • Tomoyasu Kondoh, Yoshinori Okade, Kiyonao Hasegawa, Shunichi Tazuke, S ...
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 343-360
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 16, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the expansion of the Bewegte Schule concept in Germany and Switzerland. The Bewegte Schule was devised in 1983 by Urs Illi in Switzerland, and the movement was consistently adopted for school education. It has since spread widely through Germany.
    The following actions are accomplished selectively in the Bewegte Schule: (1) Dynamic learning space, (2) Exercise breaks during class, (3) Dynamic sitting, (4) Dynamic classes, (5) Dynamic physical education classes, (6) Proposal to exercise out of classes, (7) Active breaks.
    This study revealed that the Bewegte Schule encompassed four concepts. There was common recognition that movement was indispensable for the growth of the student in school education, and that it was necessary to move even during classroom lessons. Different theories have led to the development of the Bewegte Schule, including “healthy education”, “school as a life space” and “school culture” etc. In addition, according to examples in three schools, movement was introduced into the school curriculum for various reasons, including inclusive education, school reform, and an all-day school system. The term Bewegte Schule is an umbrella concept that encompasses various ways of thinking.
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  • Akisato Suzuki, Yoshihiro Sakita, Tetsuo Nakamura, Kazuhiko Kusudo
    2013 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 361-372
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 08, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 18, 2013
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Through an analysis of historical materials, the present paper considers how C.H. McCloy (1886-1959) worked in China. McCloy was Secretary in the Physical Department of the Chinese National Committee of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in Shanghai from 1913 to 1919, and then a director of the school of physical education in the National Southeastern University from 1920 to 1926. This paper makes reference to McCloy's publications in the USA, particularly those kept at the Detroit Public Library and the Special Collections department of the University Library of the University of Iowa. Of particular interest was the relationship between McCloy and W.T. Tao (1892-1946), who was in the USA studying J. Dewey's theory at Columbia University. Dewey was a very famous pedagogist in China at that time, and the Dean of Education at the National Southeastern University from 1917 to 1927. In short, the two were colleagues at the National Southeastern University.
    The results of the present research are summarized as follows:
    McCloy had detailed Tao's educational achievements in the “Detroit Saturday Night” newspaper. McCloy recognized in particular that Tao had organized and led the Chinese National Association for the Advancement of Education. In a letter of recommendation when McCloy returned to the USA, Tao placed high value on McCloy's work related to physical education in China from three viewpoints. The first was that McCloy had developed a system or discipline of physical education that could be applied to the masses. The second point was that McCloy had developed a new system of physical education by undertaking intensive statistical studies related to problems with physical education in China. The third point was that McCloy had mastered both spoken and written Chinese, and had used his skills to spread the doctrine of physical education throughout China. A further important point is that both of them aimed to extend education or physical education to the masses.
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